使用kubeadm搭建kubernetes1.10集群

kubeadmKubernetes 官方提供的用于快速安装 Kubernetes 集群的工具,通过将集群的各个组件进行容器化安装管理,通过 kubeadm 的方式安装集群比二进制的方式安装要方便不少,但是目录 kubeadm 还处于 beta 状态,还不能用于生产环境, Using kubeadm to Create a Cluster 文档中已经说明 kubeadm 将会很快能够用于生产环境了。

所以现在来了解下 kubeadm 的使用方式的话还是很有必要的,对于现阶段想要用于生产环境的,建议还是参考我们前面的文章: 手动搭建高可用的kubernetes 集群 或者 视频教程 。

环境

我们这里准备两台 Centos7主机用于安装,后续节点可以根究需要添加即可:

$ cat /etc/hosts
10.151.30.57 ydzs-master1
10.151.30.62 evjfaxic

禁用防火墙:

$ systemctl stop firewalld
$ systemctl disable firewalld

禁用SELINUX:

$ setenforce 0
$ cat /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX=disabled

创建 /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf 文件,添加如下内容:

net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

执行如下命令使修改生效:

$ modprobe br_netfilter
$ sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf

镜像

如果你的节点上面有科学上网的工具,可以忽略这一步,我们需要提前将所需的 gcr.io 上面的镜像下载到节点上面,当然前提条件是你已经成功安装了 docker

master 节点,执行下面的命令:

docker pull cnych/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.10.0
docker pull cnych/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.10.0
docker pull cnych/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.10.0
docker pull cnych/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.10.0
docker pull cnych/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.8
docker pull cnych/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.8
docker pull cnych/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.8
docker pull cnych/etcd-amd64:3.1.12
docker pull cnych/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64
docker pull cnych/pause-amd64:3.1

docker tag cnych/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.10.0 k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver-amd64:v1.10.0
docker tag cnych/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.10.0 k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler-amd64:v1.10.0
docker tag cnych/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.10.0 k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager-amd64:v1.10.0
docker tag cnych/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.10.0 k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.10.0
docker tag cnych/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.8 k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64:1.14.8
docker tag cnych/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.8 k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64:1.14.8
docker tag cnych/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.8 k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64:1.14.8
docker tag cnych/etcd-amd64:3.1.12 k8s.gcr.io/etcd-amd64:3.1.12
docker tag cnych/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64 quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64
docker tag cnych/pause-amd64:3.1 k8s.gcr.io/pause-amd64:3.1

可以将上面的命令保存为一个 shell 脚本,然后直接执行即可。这些镜像是在 master 节点上需要使用到的镜像,一定要提前下载下来。

其他 Node ,执行下面的命令:

docker pull cnych/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.10.0
docker pull cnych/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64
docker pull cnych/pause-amd64:3.1
docker pull cnych/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3
docker pull cnych/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.3.3
docker pull cnych/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.4.3
docker pull cnych/heapster-amd64:v1.4.2

docker tag cnych/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64 quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.10.0-amd64
docker tag cnych/pause-amd64:3.1 k8s.gcr.io/pause-amd64:3.1
docker tag cnych/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.10.0 k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy-amd64:v1.10.0

docker tag cnych/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3 k8s.gcr.io/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3
docker tag cnych/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.3.3 k8s.gcr.io/heapster-influxdb-amd64:v1.3.3
docker tag cnych/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.4.3 k8s.gcr.io/heapster-grafana-amd64:v4.4.3
docker tag cnych/heapster-amd64:v1.4.2 k8s.gcr.io/heapster-amd64:v1.4.2

上面的这些镜像是在 Node 节点中需要用到的镜像,在 join 节点之前也需要先下载到节点上面。

安装 kubeadm、kubelet、kubectl

在确保 docker 安装完成后,上面的相关环境配置也完成了,对应所需要的镜像(如果可以科学上网可以跳过这一步)也下载完成了,现在我们就可以来安装 kubeadm 了,我们这里是通过指定 yum 源的方式来进行安装的:

cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg

https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg

EOF

当然了,上面的 yum 源也是需要科学上网的,如果不能科学上网的话,我们可以使用阿里云的源进行安装:

cat <<EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg

http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg

EOF

目前阿里的源最新版本已经是1.10版本,所以可以直接安装。 yum 源配置完成后,执行安装命令即可:

$ yum makecache fast && yum install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl

正常情况我们可以都能顺利安装完成上面的文件。

配置 kubelet

安装完成后,我们还需要对 kubelet 进行配置,因为用 yum 源的方式安装的 kubelet 生成的配置文件将参数 --cgroup-driver 改成了 systemd ,而 dockercgroup-drivercgroupfs ,这二者必须一致才行,我们可以通过 docker info 命令查看:

$ docker info |grep Cgroup
Cgroup Driver: cgroupfs

修改文件 kubelet 的配置文件 /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf ,将其中的 KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS 参数更改成 cgroupfs

Environment="KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=--cgroup-driver=cgroupfs"

另外还有一个问题是关于交换分区的,之前我们在 手动搭建高可用的kubernetes 集群 一文中已经提到过, Kubernetes 从1.8开始要求关闭系统的 Swap ,如果不关闭,默认配置的 kubelet 将无法启动,我们可以通过 kubelet 的启动参数 --fail-swap-on=false 更改这个限制,所以我们需要在上面的配置文件中增加一项配置(在 ExecStart 之前):

Environment="KUBELET_EXTRA_ARGS=--fail-swap-on=false"

当然最好的还是将 swap 给关掉,这样能提高 kubelet 的性能。修改完成后,重新加载我们的配置文件即可:

$ systemctl daemon-reload

集群安装

初始化

到这里我们的准备工作就完成了,接下来我们就可以在 master 节点上用 kubeadm 命令来初始化我们的集群了:

$ kubeadm init --kubernetes-version=v1.10.0 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --apiserver-advertise-address=10.151.30.57

命令非常简单,就是 kubeadm init ,后面的参数是需要安装的集群版本,因为我们这里选择 flannel 作为 Pod 的网络插件,所以需要指定 –pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 ,然后是 apiserver 的通信地址,这里就是我们 master 节点的IP 地址。执行上面的命令,如果出现 running with swap on is not supported. Please disable swap 之类的错误,则我们还需要增加一个参数 –ignore-preflight-errors=Swap 来忽略 swap 的错误提示信息:

$ kubeadm init /
   --kubernetes-version=v1.10.0 /
   --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 /
   --apiserver-advertise-address=10.151.30.57 /
   --ignore-preflight-errors=Swap
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.10.0
[init] Using Authorization modes: [Node RBAC]
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks.
    [WARNING FileExisting-crictl]: crictl not found in system path
Suggestion: go get github.com/kubernetes-incubator/cri-tools/cmd/crictl
[preflight] Starting the kubelet service
[certificates] Generated ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated apiserver certificate and key.
[certificates] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [ydzs-master1 kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.96.0.1 10.151.30.57]
[certificates] Generated apiserver-kubelet-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated etcd/ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated etcd/server certificate and key.
[certificates] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [localhost] and IPs [127.0.0.1]
[certificates] Generated etcd/peer certificate and key.
[certificates] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [ydzs-master1] and IPs [10.151.30.57]
[certificates] Generated etcd/healthcheck-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated apiserver-etcd-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated sa key and public key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy-ca certificate and key.
[certificates] Generated front-proxy-client certificate and key.
[certificates] Valid certificates and keys now exist in "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf"
[kubeconfig] Wrote KubeConfig file to disk: "/etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf"
[controlplane] Wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-apiserver to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver.yaml"
[controlplane] Wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-controller-manager to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-controller-manager.yaml"
[controlplane] Wrote Static Pod manifest for component kube-scheduler to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-scheduler.yaml"
[etcd] Wrote Static Pod manifest for a local etcd instance to "/etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd.yaml"
[init] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as Static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests".
[init] This might take a minute or longer if the control plane images have to be pulled.
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 22.007661 seconds
[uploadconfig] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[markmaster] Will mark node ydzs-master1 as master by adding a label and a taint
[markmaster] Master ydzs-master1 tainted and labelled with key/value: node-role.kubernetes.io/master=""
[bootstraptoken] Using token: 8xomlq.0cdf2pbvjs2gjho3
[bootstraptoken] Configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstraptoken] Configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstraptoken] Configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstraptoken] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-dns
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:

https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

  kubeadm join 10.151.30.57:6443 --token 8xomlq.0cdf2pbvjs2gjho3 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:92802317cb393682c1d1356c15e8b4ec8af2b8e5143ffd04d8be4eafb5fae368

上面的信息记录了 kubeadm 初始化整个集群的过程,生成相关的各种证书、 kubeconfig 文件、 bootstraptoken 等等,后边是使用 kubeadm join 往集群中添加节点时用到的命令,下面的命令是配置如何使用 kubectl 访问集群的方式: mkdir -p $HOME/.kube sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config 最后给出了将节点加入集群的命令:

kubeadm join 10.151.30.57:6443 --token 8xomlq.0cdf2pbvjs2gjho3 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:92802317cb393682c1d1356c15e8b4ec8af2b8e5143ffd04d8be4eafb5fae368

我们根据上面的提示配置好 kubectl 后,就可以使用 kubectl 来查看集群的信息了:

$ kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok
controller-manager   Healthy   ok
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health": "true"}
$ kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE       REQUESTOR                 CONDITION
node-csr-8qygb8Hjxj-byhbRHawropk81LHNPqZCTePeWoZs3-g   1h        system:bootstrap:8xomlq   Approved,Issued
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME           STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
ydzs-master1   Ready     master    3h        v1.10.0

如果你的集群安装过程中遇到了其他问题,我们可以使用下面的命令来进行重置:

$ kubeadm reset
$ ifconfig cni0 down && ip link delete cni0
$ ifconfig flannel.1 down && ip link delete flannel.1
$ rm -rf /var/lib/cni/

安装 Pod Network

接下来我们来安装 flannel 网络插件,很简单,和安装普通的 POD 没什么两样:

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
$ kubectl apply -f  kube-flannel.yml
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "flannel" created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "flannel" created
serviceaccount "flannel" created
configmap "kube-flannel-cfg" created
daemonset.extensions "kube-flannel-ds" created

另外需要注意的是如果你的节点有多个网卡的话,需要在 kube-flannel.yml 中使用 --iface 参数指定集群主机内网网卡的名称,否则可能会出现dns无法解析flanneld 启动参数加上 --iface=<iface-name>

args:
- --ip-masq
- --kube-subnet-mgr
- --iface=eth0

安装完成后使用 kubectl get pods 命令可以查看到我们集群中的组件运行状态,如果都是 Running 状态的话,那么恭喜你,你的 master 节点安装成功了。

$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                   READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   etcd-ydzs-master1                      1/1       Running   0          10m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-ydzs-master1            1/1       Running   0          10m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-ydzs-master1   1/1       Running   0          10m
kube-system   kube-dns-86f4d74b45-f5595              3/3       Running   0          10m
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-qxjs2                  1/1       Running   0          1m
kube-system   kube-proxy-vf5fg                       1/1       Running   0          10m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-ydzs-master1            1/1       Running   0          10m

kubeadm 初始化完成后,默认情况下 Pod 是不会被调度到 master 节点上的,所以现在还不能直接测试普通的 Pod ,需要添加一个工作节点后才可以。

添加节点

同样的上面的环境配置、docker 安装、kubeadmin、kubelet、kubectl 这些都在Node(10.151.30.62)节点安装配置好过后,我们就可以直接在 Node 节点上执行 kubeadm join 命令了(上面初始化的时候有),同样加上参数 --ignore-preflight-errors=Swap :

$ kubeadm join 10.151.30.57:6443 --token 8xomlq.0cdf2pbvjs2gjho3 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:92802317cb393682c1d1356c15e8b4ec8af2b8e5143ffd04d8be4eafb5fae368 --ignore-preflight-errors=Swap
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks.
    [WARNING Swap]: running with swap on is not supported. Please disable swap
    [WARNING FileExisting-crictl]: crictl not found in system path
Suggestion: go get github.com/kubernetes-incubator/cri-tools/cmd/crictl
[discovery] Trying to connect to API Server "10.151.30.57:6443"
[discovery] Created cluster-info discovery client, requesting info from "https://10.151.30.57:6443"
[discovery] Requesting info from "https://10.151.30.57:6443" again to validate TLS against the pinned public key
[discovery] Cluster info signature and contents are valid and TLS certificate validates against pinned roots, will use API Server "10.151.30.57:6443"
[discovery] Successfully established connection with API Server "10.151.30.57:6443"

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to master and a response
  was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the master to see this node join the cluster.

我们可以看到该节点已经加入到集群中去了,然后我们把 master 节点的 ~/.kube/config 文件拷贝到当前节点对应的位置即可使用 kubectl 命令行工具了。

$ kubectl get nodes
NAME           STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
evjfaxic       Ready     <none>    1h        v1.10.0
ydzs-master1   Ready     master    3h        v1.10.0

到这里就算我们的集群部署成功了,接下来就可以根据我们的需要安装一些附加的插件,比如 Dashboard、Heapster、Ingress-Controller等等,这些插件的安装方法就和我们之前手动安装集群的方式方法一样了,这里就不在重复了,有问题可以在下面留言讨论。

使用kubeadm搭建kubernetes1.10集群

参考资料

  • https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/independent/install-kubeadm/
  • https://niuhp.github.io/k8s/kubeadm.html

下面是 基于1.9版本手动搭建高可用Kubernetes集群的视频教程 ,对视频感兴趣的同学可以观看视频: 使用kubeadm搭建kubernetes1.10集群

扫描下面的二维码(或微信搜索 k8s技术圈 )关注我们的微信公众帐号,在微信公众帐号中回复 加群 即可加入到我们的 kubernetes 讨论群里面共同学习。 使用kubeadm搭建kubernetes1.10集群

原文 

https://blog.qikqiak.com/post/use-kubeadm-install-kubernetes-1.10/

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