spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程

在本篇文章中,将会介绍如何在spring中进行事务管理,之后对其内部原理进行分析。主要涉及

  1. @EnableTransactionManagement注解为我们做了什么?
  2. 为什么标注了@Transactional注解的方法就可以具有事务的特性,保持了数据的ACID特性?spring到底是如何具有这样的偷梁换柱之术的?
  3. 中间涉猎到一些spring关于注解配置解析逻辑分析,这一部分比较通用,并不是spring事务管理模块特有的功能。在往后分析spring其他模块代码的时候可以借鉴

如何在spring应用中使用事务

我们可以在配置类上标记注解@EnableTransactionManagement,这样就可以设置spring应用开启事务管理。 之后我们可以在需要开启事务的方法上标注@Transactional,spring将利用AOP框架,生成代理类,为方法配置事务增强。下面看一个具体的例子

demo

配置类

@Configuration
@EnableTransactionManagement  // 我们这一节的重点研究对象
public class MybatisConfig {

    // 各种其他配置,如数据源配置、mybatisSqlSessionFactory等
}
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需要事务增强的接口类

// 接口类
public interface CountryService {
    int createCountry(Country country);

}

// 实现,我们故意让其抛出异常
public class CountryServiceImpl implements CountryService {

    // ... 注入countryMapper

    @Override
    @Transactional
    public int createCountry(Country country) {
        // 使用mybatis mapper来操作数据库
        int result = countryMapper.insert(country);
        int i = 1 / 0; // 抛出RuntimeException,事务回滚
        return result;
    }
}
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使用接口

public class ContextTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(MybatisConfig.class);
        CountryService countryService = context.getBean(CountryService.class);
        Country country = new Country();
        country.setCountryName("中国");
        country.setCountryCode("CN");
        // 由于我们在countryService中,抛出了异常。因此这里的数据将发生回滚,不会写入到数据库中
        countryService.createCountry(country);
    }
}
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demo说明了什么?

从以上的demo,我们可以看出来。利用spring的事务管理框架,我们只需要三个步骤即可:

  1. 通过注解@EnableTransactionManagement,开启spring的事务管理功能
  2. 在接口类的需要事务增强的方法上,标注@Transactional
  3. 在容器中使用增强后的代理类的事务方法,如countryService.createCountry(country)

spring是如何做到的呢?

区区三个步骤,就可以让我们解耦数据访问、事务管理这两个功能模块。神奇的背后,到底隐藏着什么原理呢?

从@EnableTransactionManagement开始探险

EnableTransactionManagement

@Target(ElementType.TYPE)
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Import(TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector.class)
public @interface EnableTransactionManagement {

    boolean proxyTargetClass() default false;
    AdviceMode mode() default AdviceMode.PROXY;
    int order() default Ordered.LOWEST_PRECEDENCE;

}
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从注解的代码中,可以看出在其内部通过@Import注解导入了TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector类

TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector

public class TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector extends AdviceModeImportSelector<EnableTransactionManagement> {

	/**
	 * {@inheritDoc}
	 * @return {@link ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration} or
	 * {@code AspectJTransactionManagementConfiguration} for {@code PROXY} and
	 * {@code ASPECTJ} values of {@link EnableTransactionManagement#mode()}, respectively
	 */
	@Override
	protected String[] selectImports(AdviceMode adviceMode) {
		switch (adviceMode) {
			case PROXY:
				return new String[] {AutoProxyRegistrar.class.getName(), ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration.class.getName()};
			case ASPECTJ:
				return new String[] {TransactionManagementConfigUtils.TRANSACTION_ASPECT_CONFIGURATION_CLASS_NAME};
			default:
				return null;
		}
	}
}
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spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程

TransactionManagementConfigurationSelector实现了接口ImportSelector

spring加载配置流程

由于整个解析配置的流程过于复杂,代码量繁多。这里就不一一列出具体代码了。下面提供一个主流程的时序图,有兴趣的看官可以跟着流程图去浏览一下相关源码

spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程

在spring解析配置的过程中,将调用方法AutoProxyRegistrar#registerBeanDefinitions,最终向容器中注册了自动代理生成器InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator

@Override
public void registerBeanDefinitions(AnnotationMetadata importingClassMetadata, BeanDefinitionRegistry registry) {
    boolean candidateFound = false;
    Set<String> annoTypes = importingClassMetadata.getAnnotationTypes();
    for (String annoType : annoTypes) {
        AnnotationAttributes candidate = AnnotationConfigUtils.attributesFor(importingClassMetadata, annoType);
        if (candidate == null) {
            continue;
        }
        Object mode = candidate.get("mode");
        Object proxyTargetClass = candidate.get("proxyTargetClass");
        if (mode != null && proxyTargetClass != null && AdviceMode.class == mode.getClass() &&
                Boolean.class == proxyTargetClass.getClass()) {
            candidateFound = true;
            if (mode == AdviceMode.PROXY) {
                // 该方法内部将注册一个自动生成代理类(InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator)
                AopConfigUtils.registerAutoProxyCreatorIfNecessary(registry);
                if ((Boolean) proxyTargetClass) {
                    AopConfigUtils.forceAutoProxyCreatorToUseClassProxying(registry);
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
    }
    if (!candidateFound) {
        String name = getClass().getSimpleName();
        logger.warn(String.format("%s was imported but no annotations were found " +
                "having both 'mode' and 'proxyTargetClass' attributes of type " +
                "AdviceMode and boolean respectively. This means that auto proxy " +
                "creator registration and configuration may not have occurred as " +
                "intended, and components may not be proxied as expected. Check to " +
                "ensure that %s has been @Import'ed on the same class where these " +
                "annotations are declared; otherwise remove the import of %s " +
                "altogether.", name, name, name));
    }
}
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而且,在解析配置的过程中,将处理Import进来的配置类ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration。 其内部存在三个用@Bean注解标注的方法如下,将向容器注册其各自返回的bean

@Configuration
public class ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration extends AbstractTransactionManagementConfiguration {

    // 注册一个切面
	@Bean(name = TransactionManagementConfigUtils.TRANSACTION_ADVISOR_BEAN_NAME)
	@Role(BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE)
	public BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor transactionAdvisor() {
		BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor advisor = new BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor();
		advisor.setTransactionAttributeSource(transactionAttributeSource());
		advisor.setAdvice(transactionInterceptor());
		advisor.setOrder(this.enableTx.<Integer>getNumber("order"));
		return advisor;
	}

    // 
	@Bean
	@Role(BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE)
	public TransactionAttributeSource transactionAttributeSource() {
		return new AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource();
	}

    // 切面逻辑(Advice)
	@Bean
	@Role(BeanDefinition.ROLE_INFRASTRUCTURE)
	public TransactionInterceptor transactionInterceptor() {
		TransactionInterceptor interceptor = new TransactionInterceptor();
		interceptor.setTransactionAttributeSource(transactionAttributeSource());
		if (this.txManager != null) {
			interceptor.setTransactionManager(this.txManager);
		}
		return interceptor;
	}

}

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解析配置后的成果

  1. 注册了自动代理生成器InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator
  2. 注册了ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration,其内部会通过@Bean标注的方法,进而注册BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor、AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource、TransactionInterceptor

spring是如何为我们进行事务增强的

spring通过AOP框架在容器启动时,自动发现需要事务增强的类或方法(即标注了@Transactional的类或方法),为这些方法嵌入事务切面(即BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor)生成代理类,之后我们从容器获取到的对应的bean就是进行事务增强后的代理类。大致的步骤包括:

  1. InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator作为BeanPostProcessor,在容器启动期间其postProcessAfterInitialization方法被调用,作为创建事务增强代理对象的入口
  2. 之后从beanfactory中获取所有Advisor实现类的实例,使用每一个获取到的Advisor中的Pointcut对当前正在创建的bean进行匹配,在这里Advisor为BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor、Pointcut为TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut
  3. 匹配过程中会调用TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut的matches(Method method, Class targetClass)方法来进行匹配判断,判断的工作需要借助AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource#getTransactionAttribute(Method method, Class targetClass)来解析注解@Transactional
  4. 如果匹配成功,则证明需要生成事务增强代理。会返回BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor实例,作为切面设置到ProxyFactory中,用于生成代理
  5. 通过ProxyFactory来生成事务增强代理

大致的流程图如下所示

spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程

事务增强代理生成过程的源码分析

InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator(BeanPostProcessor)

public class InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator extends AbstractAdvisorAutoProxyCreator {
	// postProcessAfterInitialization接口在其父类中实现
}
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public abstract class AbstractAutoProxyCreator extends ProxyProcessorSupport
		implements SmartInstantiationAwareBeanPostProcessor, BeanFactoryAware {

	@Override
	public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object bean, String beanName) throws BeansException {
		if (bean != null) {
			Object cacheKey = getCacheKey(bean.getClass(), beanName);
			if (!this.earlyProxyReferences.contains(cacheKey)) {
				// 代理生成逻辑
				return wrapIfNecessary(bean, beanName, cacheKey);
			}
		}
		return bean;
	}

	protected Object wrapIfNecessary(Object bean, String beanName, Object cacheKey) {
		if (beanName != null && this.targetSourcedBeans.contains(beanName)) {
			return bean;
		}
		if (Boolean.FALSE.equals(this.advisedBeans.get(cacheKey))) {
			return bean;
		}
		if (isInfrastructureClass(bean.getClass()) || shouldSkip(bean.getClass(), beanName)) {
			this.advisedBeans.put(cacheKey, Boolean.FALSE);
			return bean;
		}

		// Create proxy if we have advice.
		// 在这个方法内部将调用TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut#match方法进行匹配,如果匹配成功那么会返回BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor实例
		// 这个方法完成了以下几个工作
		// 1. 从beanfactory中获取所有注册到beanfactory中的Advisor,将Advisor进行实例化
		// 2. 调用Advisor中的Pointcut的matches方法,进行匹配。匹配成功则返回当前Advisor
		// 3. 在事务管理的框架中,匹配细节由TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut#matches方法负责,其内部会调用AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource#getTransactionAttribute方法解析@Transactional注解
		// 4. 对于局部事务来说,解析@Transactional的解析将委托给SpringTransactionAnnotationParser
		Object[] specificInterceptors = getAdvicesAndAdvisorsForBean(bean.getClass(), beanName, null);
		if (specificInterceptors != DO_NOT_PROXY) {
			this.advisedBeans.put(cacheKey, Boolean.TRUE);
			// 在这个方法内部将使用ProxyFactory来生成代理
			Object proxy = createProxy(
					bean.getClass(), beanName, specificInterceptors, new SingletonTargetSource(bean));
			this.proxyTypes.put(cacheKey, proxy.getClass());
			return proxy;
		}

		this.advisedBeans.put(cacheKey, Boolean.FALSE);
		return bean;
	}

}
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BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor(Advisor)

这里先看一下BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor的类图,大概了解下这个类是在整个事务管理体系中是属于什么角色。

spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程
public class BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor extends AbstractBeanFactoryPointcutAdvisor {

	private TransactionAttributeSource transactionAttributeSource;

    // 切面内的Pointcut,用于在生成代理的过程中进行匹配方法
	private final TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut pointcut = new TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut() {
		@Override
		protected TransactionAttributeSource getTransactionAttributeSource() {
			return transactionAttributeSource;
		}
	};


	/**
	 * Set the transaction attribute source which is used to find transaction
	 * attributes. This should usually be identical to the source reference
	 * set on the transaction interceptor itself.
	 * @see TransactionInterceptor#setTransactionAttributeSource
	 */
	public void setTransactionAttributeSource(TransactionAttributeSource transactionAttributeSource) {
		this.transactionAttributeSource = transactionAttributeSource;
	}

	/**
	 * Set the {@link ClassFilter} to use for this pointcut.
	 * Default is {@link ClassFilter#TRUE}.
	 */
	public void setClassFilter(ClassFilter classFilter) {
		this.pointcut.setClassFilter(classFilter);
	}

	@Override
	public Pointcut getPointcut() {
		return this.pointcut;
	}

}
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可以看出,这个类间接实现了接口PointcutAdvisor,这是一个切面类(即组合了Pointcut、Advice)。其内部定义的Pointcut为抽象类TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut的匿名实现类。关于AOP的这些概念,可以参考:spring-AOP原理分析一和spring-AOP原理分析二,这里不再赘述。

TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut(Pointcut)

spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程

这个类间接实现了两个接口:Pointcut、MethodMatcher。在事务管理中作为AOP的pointcut、methodMatcher两个角色。用于匹配方法是否需要进行事务增强

abstract class TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut extends StaticMethodMatcherPointcut implements Serializable {

    // 通过AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource来获取
	@Override
	public boolean matches(Method method, Class<?> targetClass) {
		if (targetClass != null && TransactionalProxy.class.isAssignableFrom(targetClass)) {
			return false;
		}
		// 获取到的tas为AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource实例,
		// 在ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration中注册而来
		TransactionAttributeSource tas = getTransactionAttributeSource();
		return (tas == null || tas.getTransactionAttribute(method, targetClass) != null);
	}

	@Override
	public boolean equals(Object other) {
		if (this == other) {
			return true;
		}
		if (!(other instanceof TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut)) {
			return false;
		}
		TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut otherPc = (TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut) other;
		return ObjectUtils.nullSafeEquals(getTransactionAttributeSource(), otherPc.getTransactionAttributeSource());
	}

	@Override
	public int hashCode() {
		return TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut.class.hashCode();
	}

	@Override
	public String toString() {
		return getClass().getName() + ": " + getTransactionAttributeSource();
	}


	/**
	 * Obtain the underlying TransactionAttributeSource (may be {@code null}).
	 * To be implemented by subclasses.
	 */
	protected abstract TransactionAttributeSource getTransactionAttributeSource();

}
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AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource

spring事务管理源码分析(一)配置和事务增强代理的生成流程

在TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut#matches(Method method, Class targetClass)方法中,将调用AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource#getTransactionAttribute(Method method, Class targetClass)方法,用于获取TransactionAttribute,即配置到@Transactional的属性值。实际的获取动作代理给了父类AbstractFallbackTransactionAttributeSource

public class AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource extends AbstractFallbackTransactionAttributeSource
		implements Serializable {

        // ... 省略code

}

public abstract class AbstractFallbackTransactionAttributeSource implements TransactionAttributeSource {

    @Override
	public TransactionAttribute getTransactionAttribute(Method method, Class<?> targetClass) {
		if (method.getDeclaringClass() == Object.class) {
			return null;
		}

		// First, see if we have a cached value.
		Object cacheKey = getCacheKey(method, targetClass);
		Object cached = this.attributeCache.get(cacheKey);
		if (cached != null) {
			// Value will either be canonical value indicating there is no transaction attribute,
			// or an actual transaction attribute.
			if (cached == NULL_TRANSACTION_ATTRIBUTE) {
				return null;
			}
			else {
				return (TransactionAttribute) cached;
			}
		}
		else {
			// We need to work it out.
			TransactionAttribute txAttr = computeTransactionAttribute(method, targetClass);
			// Put it in the cache.
			if (txAttr == null) {
				this.attributeCache.put(cacheKey, NULL_TRANSACTION_ATTRIBUTE);
			}
			else {
				String methodIdentification = ClassUtils.getQualifiedMethodName(method, targetClass);
				if (txAttr instanceof DefaultTransactionAttribute) {
					((DefaultTransactionAttribute) txAttr).setDescriptor(methodIdentification);
				}
				if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
					logger.debug("Adding transactional method '" + methodIdentification + "' with attribute: " + txAttr);
				}
				this.attributeCache.put(cacheKey, txAttr);
			}
			return txAttr;
		}
	}

    // 解析@Transaction注解的属性值
    protected TransactionAttribute computeTransactionAttribute(Method method, Class<?> targetClass) {
		// Don't allow no-public methods as required.
		// 1. 只有public方法可以切入事务管理
		if (allowPublicMethodsOnly() && !Modifier.isPublic(method.getModifiers())) {
			return null;
		}

		// Ignore CGLIB subclasses - introspect the actual user class.
		Class<?> userClass = ClassUtils.getUserClass(targetClass);
		// The method may be on an interface, but we need attributes from the target class.
		// If the target class is null, the method will be unchanged.
		Method specificMethod = ClassUtils.getMostSpecificMethod(method, userClass);
		// If we are dealing with method with generic parameters, find the original method.
		specificMethod = BridgeMethodResolver.findBridgedMethod(specificMethod);

		// First try is the method in the target class.
		TransactionAttribute txAttr = findTransactionAttribute(specificMethod);
		if (txAttr != null) {
			return txAttr;
		}

		// Second try is the transaction attribute on the target class.
		txAttr = findTransactionAttribute(specificMethod.getDeclaringClass());
		if (txAttr != null && ClassUtils.isUserLevelMethod(method)) {
			return txAttr;
		}

		if (specificMethod != method) {
			// Fallback is to look at the original method.
			txAttr = findTransactionAttribute(method);
			if (txAttr != null) {
				return txAttr;
			}
			// Last fallback is the class of the original method.
			txAttr = findTransactionAttribute(method.getDeclaringClass());
			if (txAttr != null && ClassUtils.isUserLevelMethod(method)) {
				return txAttr;
			}
		}

		return null;
	}

	@Override
	protected TransactionAttribute findTransactionAttribute(Method method) {
		return determineTransactionAttribute(method);
	}

	protected TransactionAttribute determineTransactionAttribute(AnnotatedElement ae) {
		if (ae.getAnnotations().length > 0) {
			// TransactionAnnotationParser的实现类有Ejb3TransactionAnnotationParser、JtaTransactionAnnotationParser、SpringTransactionAnnotationParser
			// 对于局部失误,我们使用SpringTransactionAnnotationParser来进行解析
			for (TransactionAnnotationParser annotationParser : this.annotationParsers) {
				TransactionAttribute attr = annotationParser.parseTransactionAnnotation(ae);
				if (attr != null) {
					return attr;
				}
			}
		}
		return null;
	}

}

public class SpringTransactionAnnotationParser implements TransactionAnnotationParser, Serializable {

	@Override
	public TransactionAttribute parseTransactionAnnotation(AnnotatedElement ae) {
		AnnotationAttributes attributes = AnnotatedElementUtils.getMergedAnnotationAttributes(ae, Transactional.class);
		if (attributes != null) {
			return parseTransactionAnnotation(attributes);
		}
		else {
			return null;
		}
	}

	public TransactionAttribute parseTransactionAnnotation(Transactional ann) {
		return parseTransactionAnnotation(AnnotationUtils.getAnnotationAttributes(ann, false, false));
	}

	protected TransactionAttribute parseTransactionAnnotation(AnnotationAttributes attributes) {
		RuleBasedTransactionAttribute rbta = new RuleBasedTransactionAttribute();
		Propagation propagation = attributes.getEnum("propagation");
		rbta.setPropagationBehavior(propagation.value());
		Isolation isolation = attributes.getEnum("isolation");
		rbta.setIsolationLevel(isolation.value());
		rbta.setTimeout(attributes.getNumber("timeout").intValue());
		rbta.setReadOnly(attributes.getBoolean("readOnly"));
		rbta.setQualifier(attributes.getString("value"));
		ArrayList<RollbackRuleAttribute> rollBackRules = new ArrayList<RollbackRuleAttribute>();
		Class<?>[] rbf = attributes.getClassArray("rollbackFor");
		for (Class<?> rbRule : rbf) {
			RollbackRuleAttribute rule = new RollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule);
			rollBackRules.add(rule);
		}
		String[] rbfc = attributes.getStringArray("rollbackForClassName");
		for (String rbRule : rbfc) {
			RollbackRuleAttribute rule = new RollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule);
			rollBackRules.add(rule);
		}
		Class<?>[] nrbf = attributes.getClassArray("noRollbackFor");
		for (Class<?> rbRule : nrbf) {
			NoRollbackRuleAttribute rule = new NoRollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule);
			rollBackRules.add(rule);
		}
		String[] nrbfc = attributes.getStringArray("noRollbackForClassName");
		for (String rbRule : nrbfc) {
			NoRollbackRuleAttribute rule = new NoRollbackRuleAttribute(rbRule);
			rollBackRules.add(rule);
		}
		rbta.getRollbackRules().addAll(rollBackRules);
		return rbta;
	}

	@Override
	public boolean equals(Object other) {
		return (this == other || other instanceof SpringTransactionAnnotationParser);
	}

	@Override
	public int hashCode() {
		return SpringTransactionAnnotationParser.class.hashCode();
	}

}
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总结

以上我们从一个demo入手,了解了如何使用spring来管理事务;之后我们从配置的注解@EnableTransactionManagement切入到spring事务框架的内部原理。期间涉及了几个主要的类:

  1. AutoProxyRegistrar其主要职责是注册InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator 1.1 InfrastructureAdvisorAutoProxyCreator,负责在容器启动期间利用配置信息生成事务增强的代理类对象
  2. ProxyTransactionManagementConfiguration其主要职责是注册AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource、TransactionInterceptor、BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor 2.1 AnnotationTransactionAttributeSource负责解析@Transactional注解 2.2 BeanFactoryTransactionAttributeSourceAdvisor作为切面,组合了Pointcut和Advice提供了事务管理的功能
  3. TransactionAttributeSourcePointcut作为Pointcut,负责匹配方法
  4. TransactionInterceptor作为Advice,事务管理的逻辑都在这个类中进行实现。

悬念

鉴于篇幅过长了,O(≧口≦)O。。。下一节我们再对事务管理的逻辑进行剖析,即对TransactionInterceptor进行分析

原文 

https://juejin.im/post/5c01efb16fb9a04a006ebee6

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