【 Android 10 系统启动 】系列 — SystemServer(服务管家)

前言

由于源码分析的代码量比较大,大部分博客网站的内容显示页面都比较窄,显示出来的效果都异常丑陋,所以您也可以直接查看 《 Thinking in Android
来阅读这边文章希望这篇文章能帮你梳理清楚 “SystemServer 进程的原理”

核心源码

关键类 路径
com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp frameworks/base/core/jni/com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp
AndroidRuntime.cpp frameworks/base/core/jni/AndroidRuntime.cpp
ZygoteInit.java frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit.java
Zygote.java frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/Zygote.java
ActivityThread.java frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ActivityThread.java
ContextImpl.java.java frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ContextImpl.java
LoadedApk.java.java frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/LoadedApk.java
SystemServer.java frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java
RuntimeInit.java frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/RuntimeInit.java
app_main.cpp frameworks/base/cmds/app_process/app_main.cpp
SystemServiceManager.java frameworks/base/services/core/java/com/android/server/SystemServiceManager.java

概述

SystemServer
服务进程是 Android 系统 Java 层框架的核心,它维护着 Android 系统的 核心服务
,比如: ActivityManagerService
WindowManagerService
PackageManagerService
等,是 Android 系统中一个非常重要的进程。

在 Android 系统中,应用程序出现问题,对系统影响不大,而 Init
Zygote
SystemServer
三大进程对系统的影响则非常大,因为其中任何一个 crash
,都会造成系统崩溃,出现重启现象。

一、SystemServer 启动

SystemServer
是由 Zygote
孵化而来的一个进程,通过 ps 命令,我们发现其进程名为: system_server

1.1 ZygoteInit.main()

在分析 zygote 进程
时,我们知道当 zygote 进程进入到 java 世界后,在 ZygoteInit.java
中,将调用 forkSystemServer
方法启动 SystemServer 进程。

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit.java

public class ZygoteInit {

    public static void main(String argv[]) {

        try {
        
            if (startSystemServer) {
                // fork 出 system_server
                Runnable r = forkSystemServer(abiList, zygoteSocketName, zygoteServer);

                if (r != null) {
                    r.run();
                    return;
                }
            }

        }
        
    }
    
    private static Runnable forkSystemServer(String abiList, String socketName,
            ZygoteServer zygoteServer) {

        try {
            ... ...

            /* Request to fork the system server process */
            pid = Zygote.forkSystemServer(
                    parsedArgs.mUid, parsedArgs.mGid,
                    parsedArgs.mGids,
                    parsedArgs.mRuntimeFlags,
                    null,
                    parsedArgs.mPermittedCapabilities,
                    parsedArgs.mEffectiveCapabilities);
        } catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
            throw new RuntimeException(ex);
        }
    
    }

}

1.2 Zygote.forkSystemServer()

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/Zygote.java

public final class Zygote {

    public static int forkSystemServer(int uid, int gid, int[] gids, int runtimeFlags,
            int[][] rlimits, long permittedCapabilities, long effectiveCapabilities) {
        ZygoteHooks.preFork();
        // Resets nice priority for zygote process.
        resetNicePriority();
        
        // 调用 nativeForkSystemServer() 方法进一步处理,它是一个 native 方法
        int pid = nativeForkSystemServer(
                uid, gid, gids, runtimeFlags, rlimits,
                permittedCapabilities, effectiveCapabilities);
        // Enable tracing as soon as we enter the system_server.
        if (pid == 0) {
            Trace.setTracingEnabled(true, runtimeFlags);
        }
        ZygoteHooks.postForkCommon();
        return pid;
    }

}

1.3 com_android_internal_os_Zygote_nativeForkSystemServer

我们来看看对应的 native 方法:

// frameworks/base/core/jni/com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp

static jint com_android_internal_os_Zygote_nativeForkSystemServer(
       JNIEnv* env, jclass, uid_t uid, gid_t gid, jintArray gids,
       jint runtime_flags, jobjectArray rlimits, jlong permitted_capabilities,
       jlong effective_capabilities) {
    ... ...

    // 传入一堆参数,进行实际的 "分裂" 工作,fork 出一个新的进程
    pid_t pid = ForkCommon(env, true,
                           fds_to_close,
                           fds_to_ignore);
    if (pid == 0) {
        SpecializeCommon(env, uid, gid, gids, runtime_flags, rlimits,
                         permitted_capabilities, effective_capabilities,
                         MOUNT_EXTERNAL_DEFAULT, nullptr, nullptr, true,
                         false, nullptr, nullptr);
    } else if (pid > 0) {
        // The zygote process checks whether the child process has died or not.
        ALOGI("System server process %d has been created", pid);
      
        // 这里 SystemServer 进程已经创建出来,pid > 0 说明在父进程中
        // 将子进程 SystemServer 的 pid 存在 zygote 进程的全局变量中
        gSystemServerPid = pid;
      
        int status;
        if (waitpid(pid, &status, WNOHANG) == pid) {
            // 小概率,SystemServer 进程刚创建,就 crash;此时需要重启 zygote
            ALOGE("System server process %d has died. Restarting Zygote!", pid);
            RuntimeAbort(env, __LINE__, "System server process has died. Restarting Zygote!");
        }
        ... ...

    }
    return pid;
}

上述代码中,实际的“分裂”工作由函数 ForkCommon()
SpecializeCommon()
完成。

1.4 ForkCommon()

// frameworks/base/core/jni/com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp

// Utility routine to fork a process from the zygote.
static pid_t ForkCommon(JNIEnv* env, bool is_system_server,
                        const std::vector<int>& fds_to_close,
                        const std::vector<int>& fds_to_ignore) {
    SetSignalHandlers();
    ... ...
    
    pid_t pid = fork();    // 注册子进程信号监听器
    ... ...
    
    return pid;
}

从上面的代码可以看出, ForkCommon()
最终是通过 fork
的方式,分裂出子进程。

这里需要注意的是,在 zygote 进程 fork 之前,调用了 SetSignalHandlers()
函数注册了一个 子进程信号监听器

1.5 SetSignalHandlers()

// frameworks/base/core/jni/com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp

static void SetSignalHandlers() {
    struct sigaction sig_chld = {};
    sig_chld.sa_handler = SigChldHandler;

    // 该信号监听器关注子进程结束,对应的处理函数为 SigChldHandler
    if (sigaction(SIGCHLD, &sig_chld, nullptr) < 0) {
        ALOGW("Error setting SIGCHLD handler: %s", strerror(errno));
    }

    struct sigaction sig_hup = {};
    sig_hup.sa_handler = SIG_IGN;
    if (sigaction(SIGHUP, &sig_hup, nullptr) < 0) {
        ALOGW("Error setting SIGHUP handler: %s", strerror(errno));
    }
}

从上面的代码可以看出, SetSignalHandlers()
函数将注册一个信号处理器SigChldHandler
,来监听子进程的死亡。当子进程死亡后,就会产生一个信号,Zygote 进程收到该信号之后就会调用 SigChldHandler()
进行处理。需要注意的是,zygote 的信号监听器,关注的是 zygote 所有的子进程,而不只是 SystemServer 进程(每次创建一个新的进程时,zygote 都会注册对应的监听器)。

1.6 SigChldHandler()

// frameworks/base/core/jni/com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp

static void SigChldHandler(int /*signal_number*/) {
    pid_t pid;
    int status;
    int64_t usaps_removed = 0;
  
    while ((pid = waitpid(-1, &status, WNOHANG)) > 0) {
        // 通过 status 判断子进程结束的原因,并打印相应的 log
        ... ...

        if (pid == gSystemServerPid) {    // 上文已经介绍过,gSystemServerPid 中记录了 SystemServer 的 pid
            kill(getpid(), SIGKILL);      // 如果结束的子进程为 SystemServer,Zygote 也将结束自己
        }
    }
    ... ...
}

发现没?所有 zygote 的子进程中,zygote 只关心了 SystemServer 的死活,它们是 "生死共存亡的"
,当其它子进程 crash 时,zygote 只打印了 log 信息。

我们之前在分析 init 的 main() 方法的最后,关注到如下代码:

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    ... ...

    while (true) {
        // By default, sleep until something happens.
        int epoll_timeout_ms = -1;

        if (do_shutdown && !shutting_down) {
            do_shutdown = false;
            if (HandlePowerctlMessage(shutdown_command)) {
                shutting_down = true;
            }
        }

        if (!(waiting_for_prop || Service::is_exec_service_running())) {
            am.ExecuteOneCommand();
        }
        if (!(waiting_for_prop || Service::is_exec_service_running())) {
            if (!shutting_down) {
                // 重启死掉的 service,如果是 Zygote 死掉了,就重启 Zygote
                auto next_process_restart_time = RestartProcesses();
        ... ...

    }
}

在 init 的 main() 函数中,如果 Zygote 停止工作,Init 进程就调用 RestartProcesses()
函数来重启 Zygote。

所以, init 进程
Zygote 进程
SystemServer 进程
紧密相连,任何一个都不能出问题!

通过 fork 创建出 SystemServer 进程后,SystemServer 进程会调用 handleSystemServerProcess
函数,开始执行自己的工作。

1.7 ZygoteInit.forkSystemServer()

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit.java

public class ZygoteInit {

    private static Runnable forkSystemServer(String abiList, String socketName,
            ZygoteServer zygoteServer) {
        ... ...
    
        /* For child process */
        if (pid == 0) {
            if (hasSecondZygote(abiList)) {
                waitForSecondaryZygote(socketName);
            }

            zygoteServer.closeServerSocket();
            return handleSystemServerProcess(parsedArgs);    // SystemServer 进程处理自己的工作
        }

        return null;
    }
}

1.8 ZygoteInit.handleSystemServerProcess()

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit.java

public class ZygoteInit {

    /**
     * Finish remaining work for the newly forked system server process.
     */
    private static Runnable handleSystemServerProcess(ZygoteArguments parsedArgs) {

        if (parsedArgs.mNiceName != null) {
            Process.setArgV0(parsedArgs.mNiceName);
        }

        // 加载 SystemServer 对应的文件
        final String systemServerClasspath = Os.getenv("SYSTEMSERVERCLASSPATH");
        if (systemServerClasspath != null) {
            if (performSystemServerDexOpt(systemServerClasspath)) {
                sCachedSystemServerClassLoader = null;
            }
            boolean profileSystemServer = SystemProperties.getBoolean(
                    "dalvik.vm.profilesystemserver", false);
            if (profileSystemServer && (Build.IS_USERDEBUG || Build.IS_ENG)) {
                try {
                    prepareSystemServerProfile(systemServerClasspath);
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    Log.wtf(TAG, "Failed to set up system server profile", e);
                }
            }
        }

        if (parsedArgs.mInvokeWith != null) {
            ... ...

        } else {
            createSystemServerClassLoader();    // 构建对应的 ClassLoader
            ClassLoader cl = sCachedSystemServerClassLoader;
            if (cl != null) {
                Thread.currentThread().setContextClassLoader(cl);
            }

            // 将剩余参数及 classLoader 递交给 ZygoteInit 的 zygoteInit() 函数
            return ZygoteInit.zygoteInit(parsedArgs.mTargetSdkVersion,
                    parsedArgs.mRemainingArgs, cl);
        }
    }

    /* should never reach here */
}

从上面的代码可以看出,接下来的流程进入到 ZygoteInit 的 zygoteInit()
函数。zygoteInit 函数将根据 classLoader 和参数,完成不同进程所需要的初始化工作(SystemServer 进程与 Zygote 的其它子进程均将使用 zygoteInit 函数)。

1.9 ZygoteInit.zygoteInit()

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/ZygoteInit.java

public class ZygoteInit {

    public static final Runnable zygoteInit(int targetSdkVersion, String[] argv,
            ClassLoader classLoader) {
        if (RuntimeInit.DEBUG) {
            Slog.d(RuntimeInit.TAG, "RuntimeInit: Starting application from zygote");
        }

        Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "ZygoteInit");
        RuntimeInit.redirectLogStreams();

        RuntimeInit.commonInit();         // 常规初始化操作,暂时不做深入
        ZygoteInit.nativeZygoteInit();    // native 方法,为 Binder 通信做好准备
        return RuntimeInit.applicationInit(targetSdkVersion, argv, classLoader);    // 见 1.12
    }

}

1.10 ZygoteInit.nativeZygoteInit()

// frameworks/base/core/jni/AndroidRuntime.cpp

static void com_android_internal_os_ZygoteInit_nativeZygoteInit(JNIEnv* env, jobject clazz)
{
    gCurRuntime->onZygoteInit();      // gCurRuntime 指的是什么?
}

我们知道,在 app_main.cpp
main
函数中,创建了 AppRuntime

int main(int argc, char* const argv[])
{
    AppRuntime runtime(argv[0], computeArgBlockSize(argc, argv));
}

AppRuntime 定义如下:

class AppRuntime : public AndroidRuntime
{
public:
    AppRuntime(char* argBlockStart, const size_t argBlockLength)
        : AndroidRuntime(argBlockStart, argBlockLength)
        , mClass(NULL)
    {
    }
    ... ...
}

看看 AppRuntime 的父类 AndroidRuntime:

AndroidRuntime::AndroidRuntime(char* argBlockStart, const size_t argBlockLength) :
        mExitWithoutCleanup(false),
        mArgBlockStart(argBlockStart),
        mArgBlockLength(argBlockLength)
{
    SkGraphics::Init();

    // Pre-allocate enough space to hold a fair number of options.
    mOptions.setCapacity(20);

    assert(gCurRuntime == NULL);        // one per process
    gCurRuntime = this;
}

从代码可以看出,AndroidRuntime 初始化时定义了 gCurRuntime
gCurRuntime 指向对象自身,也就是说 gCurRuntime 指向的是 AppRuntime 对象

由于 SystemServer 进程由 zygote 进程 fork 出来,所以 SystemServer 进程中也存在 gCurRuntime 对象,类型为 AppRuntime

至此我们知道,Native 函数中 gCurRuntime->onZygoteInit
将调用 AppRuntime
中的 onZygoteInit()

1.11 app_main.onZygoteInit()

// frameworks/base/cmds/app_process/app_main.cpp

    virtual void onZygoteInit()
    {
        sp<ProcessState> proc = ProcessState::self();
        ALOGV("App process: starting thread pool./n");
        proc->startThreadPool();    // 启动一个线程,用于 binder 通信
    }

1.12 RuntimeInit.applicationInit()

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/RuntimeInit.java

public class RuntimeInit {

    protected static Runnable applicationInit(int targetSdkVersion, String[] argv,
            ClassLoader classLoader) {
        // 设置一些进程退出的处理策略,可用堆栈上限等
        ... ...

        // Remaining arguments are passed to the start class's static main
        return findStaticMain(args.startClass, args.startArgs, classLoader);
    }
    
}

1.13 RuntimeInit.findStaticMain()

跟踪 findStaticMain()

// frameworks/base/core/java/com/android/internal/os/RuntimeInit.java

public class RuntimeInit {

    protected static Runnable findStaticMain(String className, String[] argv,
            ClassLoader classLoader) {
        // className 为进行初始化工作的进程类名
        // 在 SystemServer 初始化时,为 com.android.server.SystemServer
        Class<?> cl;

        try {
            // 下面就是通过反射得到对应类的 main 方法
            cl = Class.forName(className, true, classLoader);
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException ex) {
            throw new RuntimeException(
                    "Missing class when invoking static main " + className,
                    ex);
        }
        ... ...

        return new MethodAndArgsCaller(m, argv);    // 捕获 MethodAndArgsCaller 异常
    }
    
}

二、SystemServer 工作流程

2.1 SystemServer.main()

接下来就进入了 SystemServer.java
main()
函数处理流程:

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    /**
     * The main entry point from zygote.
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new SystemServer().run();        // 创建并运行,简单粗暴!
    }
    
}

这里比较简单,只是 new 出一个 SystemServer 对象
并执行其 run()
方法。

2.2 SystemServer.run()

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    private void run() {
        try {
            traceBeginAndSlog("InitBeforeStartServices");
            ... ...

            // 如何系统时钟早于1970年,则设置系统始终从1970年开始
            if (System.currentTimeMillis() < EARLIEST_SUPPORTED_TIME) {
                Slog.w(TAG, "System clock is before 1970; setting to 1970.");
                SystemClock.setCurrentTimeMillis(EARLIEST_SUPPORTED_TIME);
            }

            ... ...    

            if (!SystemProperties.get("persist.sys.language").isEmpty()) {
                // 设置区域,语言等选项    
                final String languageTag = Locale.getDefault().toLanguageTag();

                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.locale", languageTag);
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.language", "");
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.country", "");
                SystemProperties.set("persist.sys.localevar", "");
            }
            ... ...

           // 清除 vm 内存增长上限,由于启动过程需要较多的虚拟机内存空间
            VMRuntime.getRuntime().clearGrowthLimit();                                     

            // 设置堆栈利用率,GC 后会重新计算堆栈空间大小
            VMRuntime.getRuntime().setTargetHeapUtilization(0.8f);                         
            
            // 针对部分设备依赖于运行时就产生指纹信息,因此需要在开机完成前已经定义
            Build.ensureFingerprintProperty();                                             
            
            // 访问环境变量前,需要明确地指定用户
            Environment.setUserRequired(true);                                             
            ... ...

            // 加载动态库 libandroid_services.so
            System.loadLibrary("android_servers");                                         
            
            // 检测上次关机过程是否失败,该方法可能不会返回
            performPendingShutdown();                                                        
            
           // 在 SystemServer 进程中也需要创建 Context 对象,初始化系统上下文
            createSystemContext();                                                         
            
            // 创建 SystemServiceManager 对象
            mSystemServiceManager = new SystemServiceManager(mSystemContext);  
            // SystemServer 进程主要是用来构建系统各种 service 服务,
            // 而 SystemServiceManager 就是这些服务的管理对象            
            mSystemServiceManager.setStartInfo(mRuntimeRestart,
                    mRuntimeStartElapsedTime, mRuntimeStartUptime);        
            
            // 将 SystemServiceManager 对象保存到 SystemServer 进程中的一个数据结构中            
            LocalServices.addService(SystemServiceManager.class, mSystemServiceManager);   
            
            // Prepare the thread pool for init tasks that can be parallelized
            SystemServerInitThreadPool.get();
        } finally {
            traceEnd();    // InitBeforeStartServices
        }

        // Start services.
        try {
            traceBeginAndSlog("StartServices");
            startBootstrapServices();    // 主要用于启动系统 Boot 级服务        
            startCoreServices();         // 主要用于启动系统核心的服务       
            startOtherServices();        // 主要用于启动一些非紧要或者非需要及时启动的服务    
            SystemServerInitThreadPool.shutdown();
        } catch (Throwable ex) {
            Slog.e("System", "******************************************");
            Slog.e("System", "************ Failure starting system services", ex);
            throw ex;
        } finally {
            traceEnd();
        }
        ... ...

        // 启动looper,以处理到来的消息,一直循环执行
        Looper.loop();                                                                       
        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
    }

}

以上就是 SystemServer.run()
方法的整个流程,简化如下:

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    private void run() {
        try {
            // Initialize the system context.
            createSystemContext();    // 01. 初始化系统上下文
            
            // 02. 创建系统服务管理                                       
            mSystemServiceManager = new SystemServiceManager(mSystemContext);
            mSystemServiceManager.setRuntimeRestarted(mRuntimeRestart);                  
            LocalServices.addService(SystemServiceManager.class, mSystemServiceManager);   
        } finally {
            traceEnd();  // InitBeforeStartServices
        }

        // 03.启动系统各种服务
        try {
            startBootstrapServices();    // 启动引导服务
            startCoreServices();         // 启动核心服务
            startOtherServices();        // 启动其他服务
            SystemServerInitThreadPool.shutdown();
        }

        // Loop forever.
        Looper.loop();    // 一直循环执行  
        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
    }

}

接下来我们针对 SystemServer 所做的
三部分工作

单独分析!

2.3 初始化系统上下文

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    private void createSystemContext() {
        ActivityThread activityThread = ActivityThread.systemMain();
        mSystemContext = activityThread.getSystemContext();
        mSystemContext.setTheme(DEFAULT_SYSTEM_THEME);

        final Context systemUiContext = activityThread.getSystemUiContext();
        systemUiContext.setTheme(DEFAULT_SYSTEM_THEME);
    }

}

跟踪 systemMain()
方法:

// frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ActivityThread.java

public final class ActivityThread extends ClientTransactionHandler {

    public static ActivityThread systemMain() {
        // The system process on low-memory devices do not get to use hardware
        // accelerated drawing, since this can add too much overhead to the
        // process.
        if (!ActivityManager.isHighEndGfx()) {
            ThreadedRenderer.disable(true);    // 对于低内存的设备,禁用硬件加速
        } else {
            ThreadedRenderer.enableForegroundTrimming();
        }
        ActivityThread thread = new ActivityThread();
        thread.attach(true, 0);    // 调用 attach() 方法
        return thread;
    }

}

跟踪 attach()
方法:

// frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ActivityThread.java

public final class ActivityThread extends ClientTransactionHandler {

    private void attach(boolean system, long startSeq) {
        sCurrentActivityThread = this;
        mSystemThread = system;
        if (!system) {
            ... ...

        } else {
            // Don't set application object here -- if the system crashes,
            // we can't display an alert, we just want to die die die.
            // 设置 SystemServer 进程在 DDMS 中显示的名字为 "system_process"
            android.ddm.DdmHandleAppName.setAppName("system_process",
                    UserHandle.myUserId());    // 如不设置,则显示"?",无法调试该进程
            try {
                mInstrumentation = new Instrumentation();
                mInstrumentation.basicInit(this);
                // 首先通过 getSystemContext() 创建系统上下文,然后创建应用上下文
                ContextImpl context = ContextImpl.createAppContext(
                        this, getSystemContext().mPackageInfo);
                // 创建 Application
                mInitialApplication = context.mPackageInfo.makeApplication(true, null);
                // 调用 Application的 onCreate()
                mInitialApplication.onCreate();
            } catch (Exception e) {
                throw new RuntimeException(
                        "Unable to instantiate Application():" + e.toString(), e);
            }        
        }
        ... ...

        ViewRootImpl.ConfigChangedCallback configChangedCallback
                = (Configuration globalConfig) -> {
            synchronized (mResourcesManager) {
                // We need to apply this change to the resources immediately, because upon returning
                // the view hierarchy will be informed about it.
                if (mResourcesManager.applyConfigurationToResourcesLocked(globalConfig,
                        null /* compat */)) {
                    updateLocaleListFromAppContext(mInitialApplication.getApplicationContext(),
                            mResourcesManager.getConfiguration().getLocales());

                    // This actually changed the resources! Tell everyone about it.
                    if (mPendingConfiguration == null
                            || mPendingConfiguration.isOtherSeqNewer(globalConfig)) {
                        mPendingConfiguration = globalConfig;
                        sendMessage(H.CONFIGURATION_CHANGED, globalConfig);
                    }
                }
            }
        };
        // 添加回调
        ViewRootImpl.addConfigCallback(configChangedCallback);                             
    }

}

我们发现 attach()
方法主要做了四件事:

(1)创建系统上下文: getSystemContext()

(2)创建应用上下文: createAppContext()

(3)创建 Application: makeApplication()

(4)添加回调 configChangedCallback
ViewRootImpl

(1)创建系统上下文

// frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ActivityThread.java

public final class ActivityThread extends ClientTransactionHandler {

    public ContextImpl getSystemContext() {
        synchronized (this) {
            if (mSystemContext == null) {
                mSystemContext = ContextImpl.createSystemContext(this);
            }
            return mSystemContext;
        }
    }

}
// frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ContextImpl.java

class ContextImpl extends Context {

    static ContextImpl createSystemContext(ActivityThread mainThread) {
        // 这边 new 出来的 LoadedApk 将作为创建应用上下文的参数 packageInfo
        LoadedApk packageInfo = new LoadedApk(mainThread);
        // ContextImpl() 创建系统上下文 
        ContextImpl context = new ContextImpl(null, mainThread, packageInfo, null, null, null, 0,
                null, null);
        context.setResources(packageInfo.getResources());
        context.mResources.updateConfiguration(context.mResourcesManager.getConfiguration(),
                context.mResourcesManager.getDisplayMetrics());
        return context;
    }

}

(2)创建应用上下文

// frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/ContextImpl.java

class ContextImpl extends Context {

    static ContextImpl createAppContext(ActivityThread mainThread, LoadedApk packageInfo) {
        return createAppContext(mainThread, packageInfo, null);
    }

    static ContextImpl createAppContext(ActivityThread mainThread, LoadedApk packageInfo,
            String opPackageName) {
        if (packageInfo == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("packageInfo");
        // ContextImpl()创建应用上下文
        ContextImpl context = new ContextImpl(null, mainThread, packageInfo, null, null, null, 0,
                null, opPackageName);
        context.setResources(packageInfo.getResources());
        return context;
    }

}

我们可以看出: new ContextImpl()
时,系统上下文和应用上下文的参数是一样的, createAppContext()
中的参数 packageInfo
,就是 createSystemContext()
中 new 的 LoadedApk

创建完成之后,系统上下文赋值给了 ActivityThread
的成员变量 mSystemContext
,而应用上下文只是作为函数中的局部变量临时使用。

(3)创建 Application

// frameworks/base/core/java/android/app/LoadedApk.java

public final class LoadedApk {

    public Application makeApplication(boolean forceDefaultAppClass,
            Instrumentation instrumentation) {
        if (mApplication != null) {
            return mApplication;
        }

        Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "makeApplication");

        Application app = null;

        String appClass = mApplicationInfo.className;
        if (forceDefaultAppClass || (appClass == null)) {    // forceDefaultAppClass 为 true                               
            appClass = "android.app.Application";
        }

        try {
            java.lang.ClassLoader cl = getClassLoader();
            // 此 LoadedApk 对象是 createSystemContext 时 new 的,mPackageName = "android"
            if (!mPackageName.equals("android")) {                                         
                initializeJavaContextClassLoader();
            }
            // 又创建了一个局部应用上下文
            ContextImpl appContext = ContextImpl.createAppContext(mActivityThread, this);  
            // 创建 Application 
            app = mActivityThread.mInstrumentation.newApplication(
                    cl, appClass, appContext);
            appContext.setOuterContext(app);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (!mActivityThread.mInstrumentation.onException(app, e)) {
                Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                throw new RuntimeException(
                    "Unable to instantiate application " + appClass
                    + ": " + e.toString(), e);
            }
        }

        // 将前面创建的 app 添加到应用列表
        mActivityThread.mAllApplications.add(app);
        mApplication = app;
        ... ...

        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);

        return app;
    }

}

2.4 创建系统服务管理

我们回顾下 创建系统服务管理
相关代码:

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    private void run() {
        try {
            // Initialize the system context.
            createSystemContext();    // 01. 初始化系统上下文
            
            // 02. 创建系统服务管理                                       
            mSystemServiceManager = new SystemServiceManager(mSystemContext);
            mSystemServiceManager.setRuntimeRestarted(mRuntimeRestart);                  
            LocalServices.addService(SystemServiceManager.class, mSystemServiceManager);   
        } finally {
            traceEnd();  // InitBeforeStartServices
        }
    ... ...
    
}

这一步比较简单,只是 new 了一个 SystemServiceManager
,并将其添加到本地服务列表中。 mSystemContext
为第一步中创建的系统上下文。本地服务列表是以类为 key 保存的一个列表,即列表中某种类型的对象最多只能有一个。

new SystemServiceManager()

// frameworks/base/services/core/java/com/android/server/SystemServiceManager.java

public class SystemServiceManager {
    ... ...

    // 系统服务列表,系统服务必须继承 SystemService
    private final ArrayList<SystemService> mServices = new ArrayList<SystemService>();

    // 当前处于开机过程的哪个阶段
    private int mCurrentPhase = -1;

    SystemServiceManager(Context context) {
        mContext = context;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    // 通过类名启动系统服务,可能会找不到类而抛异常
    public SystemService startService(String className) {
        final Class<SystemService> serviceClass;
        try {
            serviceClass = (Class<SystemService>)Class.forName(className);
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException ex) {
            Slog.i(TAG, "Starting " + className);
            throw new RuntimeException("Failed to create service " + className
                    + ": service class not found, usually indicates that the caller should "
                    + "have called PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() to check whether the "
                    + "feature is available on this device before trying to start the "
                    + "services that implement it", ex);
        }
        return startService(serviceClass);
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    // 创建并启动系统服务,系统服务类必须继承 SystemService
    public <T extends SystemService> T startService(Class<T> serviceClass) {
        try {
            final String name = serviceClass.getName();
            Slog.i(TAG, "Starting " + name);
            Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER, "StartService " + name);

            // Create the service.
            if (!SystemService.class.isAssignableFrom(serviceClass)) {
                throw new RuntimeException("Failed to create " + name
                        + ": service must extend " + SystemService.class.getName());
            }
            final T service;
            try {
                Constructor<T> constructor = serviceClass.getConstructor(Context.class);
                service = constructor.newInstance(mContext);
            } catch (InstantiationException ex) {
                ... ...

            }

            startService(service);
            return service;
        } finally {
            Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER);
        }
    }

    public void startService(@NonNull final SystemService service) {
        // Register it.
        mServices.add(service);
        // Start it.
        long time = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();
        try {
            service.onStart();
        } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Failed to start service " + service.getClass().getName()
                    + ": onStart threw an exception", ex);
        }
        warnIfTooLong(SystemClock.elapsedRealtime() - time, service, "onStart");
    }

    // 通知系统服务到了开机的哪个阶段,会遍历调用所有系统服务的 onBootPhase() 函数
    public void startBootPhase(final int phase) {
        ... ...

        try {
            Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER, "OnBootPhase " + phase);
            final int serviceLen = mServices.size();
            for (int i = 0; i < serviceLen; i++) {
                final SystemService service = mServices.get(i);
                long time = SystemClock.elapsedRealtime();
                Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER, service.getClass().getName());
                try {
                    service.onBootPhase(mCurrentPhase);
                } catch (Exception ex) {
                    throw new RuntimeException("Failed to boot service "
                            + service.getClass().getName()
                            + ": onBootPhase threw an exception during phase "
                            + mCurrentPhase, ex);
                }
                warnIfTooLong(SystemClock.elapsedRealtime() - time, service, "onBootPhase");
                Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER);
            }
        } finally {
            Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER);
        }
    }
    
}

2.5 启动系统各种服务

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    private void run() {
        // 01. 初始化系统上下文
        // 02. 创建系统服务管理                                       
        // 03.启动系统各种服务
        try {
            startBootstrapServices();    // 启动引导服务
            startCoreServices();         // 启动核心服务
            startOtherServices();        // 启动其他服务
            SystemServerInitThreadPool.shutdown();
        }

        // Loop forever.
        Looper.loop();    // 一直循环执行  
        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
    }

}

(1)启动引导服务

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    /**
     * Starts the small tangle of critical services that are needed to get the system off the
     * ground.  These services have complex mutual dependencies which is why we initialize them all
     * in one place here.  Unless your service is also entwined in these dependencies, it should be
     * initialized in one of the other functions.
     */
    private void startBootstrapServices() {
        ... ...

        // 启动 Installer 服务,阻塞等待与 installd 建立 socket 通道
        Installer installer = mSystemServiceManager.startService(Installer.class);

        mSystemServiceManager.startService(DeviceIdentifiersPolicyService.class);

        mSystemServiceManager.startService(UriGrantsManagerService.Lifecycle.class);

        // 启动 ActivityManagerService
        ActivityTaskManagerService atm = mSystemServiceManager.startService(
                ActivityTaskManagerService.Lifecycle.class).getService();
        mActivityManagerService.setSystemServiceManager(mSystemServiceManager);
        mActivityManagerService.setInstaller(installer);
        mWindowManagerGlobalLock = atm.getGlobalLock();

        // 启动 PowerManagerService
        mPowerManagerService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(PowerManagerService.class);

        mSystemServiceManager.startService(ThermalManagerService.class);

        // PowerManagerService 就绪,AMS 初始化电源管理
        mActivityManagerService.initPowerManagement();

        mActivityManagerService.initPowerManagement();

        mSystemServiceManager.startService(RecoverySystemService.class);

        RescueParty.noteBoot(mSystemContext);

        // 启动 LightsService
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(LightsService.class);

        // 启动 DisplayManagerService
        mDisplayManagerService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(DisplayManagerService.class);

        // We need the default display before we can initialize the package manager.
        mSystemServiceManager.startBootPhase(SystemService.PHASE_WAIT_FOR_DEFAULT_DISPLAY);

        // 当设备正在加密时,仅运行核心应用
        String cryptState = SystemProperties.get("vold.decrypt");
        if (ENCRYPTING_STATE.equals(cryptState)) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Detected encryption in progress - only parsing core apps");
            mOnlyCore = true;
        } else if (ENCRYPTED_STATE.equals(cryptState)) {
            Slog.w(TAG, "Device encrypted - only parsing core apps");
            mOnlyCore = true;
        }

        // Start the package manager.
        if (!mRuntimeRestart) {
            MetricsLogger.histogram(null, "boot_package_manager_init_start",
                    (int) SystemClock.elapsedRealtime());
        }

        // 启动 PackageManagerService
        try {
            Watchdog.getInstance().pauseWatchingCurrentThread("packagemanagermain");
            mPackageManagerService = PackageManagerService.main(mSystemContext, installer,
                    mFactoryTestMode != FactoryTest.FACTORY_TEST_OFF, mOnlyCore);
        } finally {
            Watchdog.getInstance().resumeWatchingCurrentThread("packagemanagermain");
        }

        mFirstBoot = mPackageManagerService.isFirstBoot();
        mPackageManager = mSystemContext.getPackageManager();
        ... ...

        // 将 UserManagerService 添加到服务列表,该服务是在 PackageManagerService 中初始化的        
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(UserManagerService.LifeCycle.class);

        // 初始化用来缓存包资源的属性缓存
        AttributeCache.init(mSystemContext);

        // Set up the Application instance for the system process and get started.
        mActivityManagerService.setSystemProcess();
        ... ...

        mSensorServiceStart = SystemServerInitThreadPool.get().submit(() -> {
            TimingsTraceLog traceLog = new TimingsTraceLog(
                    SYSTEM_SERVER_TIMING_ASYNC_TAG, Trace.TRACE_TAG_SYSTEM_SERVER);
            traceLog.traceBegin(START_SENSOR_SERVICE);
            startSensorService();    // 启动传感器服务
            traceLog.traceEnd();
        }, START_SENSOR_SERVICE);
    }

}

首先等待 installd
启动完成,然后启动一些相互依赖的关键服务。

(2)启动核心服务

接下来继续看下核心服务的启动:

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    /**
     * Starts some essential services that are not tangled up in the bootstrap process.
     */
    private void startCoreServices() {
        // 启动 BatteryService,用于统计电池电量,需要 LightService
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(BatteryService.class);

        // 启动 UsageStatsService,用于统计应用使用情况
        mSystemServiceManager.startService(UsageStatsService.class);
        mActivityManagerService.setUsageStatsManager(
                LocalServices.getService(UsageStatsManagerInternal.class));

        // 启动 WebViewUpdateService
        if (mPackageManager.hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_WEBVIEW)) {
            mWebViewUpdateService = mSystemServiceManager.startService(WebViewUpdateService.class);
        }
        .... ...

    }

}

(3)启动其他服务

代码很长(1200多行…),但是逻辑简单,主要是启动各种服务。

// frameworks/base/services/java/com/android/server/SystemServer.java

public final class SystemServer {

    /**
     * Starts a miscellaneous grab bag of stuff that has yet to be refactored and organized.
     */
    private void startOtherServices() {
        ... ...

        try {
            ... ...

            // 调度策略
            ServiceManager.addService("scheduling_policy", new SchedulingPolicyService());

            mSystemServiceManager.startService(TelecomLoaderService.class);

            // 提供电话注册、管理服务,可以获取电话的链接状态、信号强度等
            telephonyRegistry = new TelephonyRegistry(context);
            ServiceManager.addService("telephony.registry", telephonyRegistry);

            mEntropyMixer = new EntropyMixer(context);
            
            mContentResolver = context.getContentResolver();

            // 提供所有账号、密码、认证管理等等的服务
            mSystemServiceManager.startService(ACCOUNT_SERVICE_CLASS);
            ... ...

            // 振动器服务
            vibrator = new VibratorService(context);
            ServiceManager.addService("vibrator", vibrator);
            ... ...

            inputManager = new InputManagerService(context);

            // WMS needs sensor service ready
            ConcurrentUtils.waitForFutureNoInterrupt(mSensorServiceStart, START_SENSOR_SERVICE);
            mSensorServiceStart = null;
            wm = WindowManagerService.main(context, inputManager, !mFirstBoot, mOnlyCore,
                    new PhoneWindowManager(), mActivityManagerService.mActivityTaskManager);
            ServiceManager.addService(Context.WINDOW_SERVICE, wm, /* allowIsolated= */ false,
                    DUMP_FLAG_PRIORITY_CRITICAL | DUMP_FLAG_PROTO);
            ServiceManager.addService(Context.INPUT_SERVICE, inputManager,
                    /* allowIsolated= */ false, DUMP_FLAG_PRIORITY_CRITICAL);
            ... ...

        } catch (RuntimeException e) {
            Slog.e("System", "******************************************");
            Slog.e("System", "************ Failure starting core service", e);
        }
        ... ...

        LockSettingsService               // 屏幕定服务,管理每个用户的相关锁屏信息
        DeviceIdleController              // Doze模式的主要驱动
        DevicePolicyManagerService        // 提供一些系统级别的设置及属性
        StatusBarManagerService           // 状态栏管理服务
        ClipboardService                  // 系统剪切板服务
        NetworkManagementService          // 网络管理服务
        TextServicesManagerService        // 文本服务,例如文本检查等
        NetworkScoreService               // 网络评分服务
        NetworkStatsService               // 网络状态服务
        NetworkPolicyManagerService       // 网络策略服务
        WifiP2pService                    // Wifi Direct服务
        WifiService                       // Wifi服务
        WifiScanningService               // Wifi扫描服务
        RttService                        // Wifi相关
        EthernetService                   // 以太网服务
        ConnectivityService               // 网络连接管理服务
        NsdService                        // 网络发现服务
        NotificationManagerService        // 通知栏管理服务
        DeviceStorageMonitorService       // 磁盘空间状态检测服务
        LocationManagerService            // 位置服务,GPS、定位等
        CountryDetectorService            // 检测用户国家
        SearchManagerService              // 搜索管理服务
        DropBoxManagerService             // 用于系统运行时日志的存储于管理
        WallpaperManagerService           // 壁纸管理服务
        AudioService                      // AudioFlinger的上层管理封装,主要是音量、音效、声道及铃声等的管理
        DockObserver                      // 如果系统有个座子,当手机装上或拔出这个座子的话,就得靠他来管理了
        WiredAccessoryManager             // 监视手机和底座上的耳机
        UsbService                        // USB服务
        SerialService                     // 串口服务
        TwilightService                   // 指出用户当前所在位置是否为晚上,被 UiModeManager 等用来调整夜间模式
        BackupManagerService              // 备份服务
        AppWidgetService                  // 提供Widget的管理和相关服务
        VoiceInteractionManagerService    // 语音交互管理服务
        DiskStatsService                  // 磁盘统计服务,供dumpsys使用
        SamplingProfilerService           // 用于耗时统计等
        NetworkTimeUpdateService          // 监视网络时间,当网络时间变化时更新本地时间。
        CertBlacklister                   // 提供一种机制更新SSL certificate blacklist
        DreamManagerService               // 屏幕保护
        PrintManagerService               // 打印服务
        HdmiControlService                // HDMI控制服务
        FingerprintService                // 指纹服务
        ... ...

    }

}

以上代码仅按顺序列出启动的服务,有些服务根据条件,如是否是工厂模式或系统属性配置,选择性启动,这里不考虑条件判断和异常处理。

自此,SystemServer 相关源码分析完毕。

原文 

https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000023209066

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转载请注明原文出处:Harries Blog™ » 【 Android 10 系统启动 】系列 — SystemServer(服务管家)

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