Spring Boot + Spring Security + JWT + MySQL构建安全认证

  • 实现通过填写name, username, email 和 password的注册api
  • 实现通过填写用户名(或邮箱)和密码的登录api.
    • 用户信息验证成功后, 服务方生成 JWT 认证 token, 并返回给客户端.
    • 客户端通过在Authorization 请求头中传递JWT token来访问特定资源.
  • 通过配置 Spring security 来限制特定资源的访问权限, 例如:
    • 登录, 注册 及 所有静态资源是完全开放的
    • 其他特定资源只对已认证用户开放
  • 配置 Spring security 以实现在无有效JWT token验证情况下访问特定资源时抛出401未授权错误
  • 配置基于角色的授权机制来保护服务器资源.

2. 配置 Spring Security 和 JWT

代码

SecurityConfig

package com.example.polls.config;

import com.example.polls.security.CustomUserDetailsService;
import com.example.polls.security.JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint;
import com.example.polls.security.JwtAuthenticationFilter;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.http.HttpMethod;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.AuthenticationManager;
import org.springframework.security.config.BeanIds;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.method.configuration.EnableGlobalMethodSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.config.http.SessionCreationPolicy;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.bcrypt.BCryptPasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter;


@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(
        securedEnabled = true,
        jsr250Enabled = true,
        prePostEnabled = true
)
public class SecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Autowired
    CustomUserDetailsService customUserDetailsService;

    @Autowired
    private JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint unauthorizedHandler;

    @Bean
    public JwtAuthenticationFilter jwtAuthenticationFilter() {
        return new JwtAuthenticationFilter();
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authenticationManagerBuilder) throws Exception {
        authenticationManagerBuilder
                .userDetailsService(customUserDetailsService)
                .passwordEncoder(passwordEncoder());
    }

    @Bean(BeanIds.AUTHENTICATION_MANAGER)
    @Override
    public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
        return super.authenticationManagerBean();
    }

    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
                .cors()
                    .and()
                .csrf()
                    .disable()
                .exceptionHandling()
                    .authenticationEntryPoint(unauthorizedHandler)
                    .and()
                .sessionManagement()
                    .sessionCreationPolicy(SessionCreationPolicy.STATELESS)
                    .and()
                .authorizeRequests()
                    .antMatchers("/",
                        "/favicon.ico",
                        "/**/*.png",
                        "/**/*.gif",
                        "/**/*.svg",
                        "/**/*.jpg",
                        "/**/*.html",
                        "/**/*.css",
                        "/**/*.js")
                        .permitAll()
                    .antMatchers("/api/auth/**")
                        .permitAll()
                    .antMatchers("/api/user/checkUsernameAvailability", "/api/user/checkEmailAvailability")
                        .permitAll()
                    .antMatchers(HttpMethod.GET, "/api/polls/**", "/api/users/**")
                        .permitAll()
                    .anyRequest()
                        .authenticated();

        // Add our custom JWT security filter
        http.addFilterBefore(jwtAuthenticationFilter(), UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);

    }
}

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代码解读

1. @EnableWebSecurity

  • 开启 web security

2. @EnableGlobalMethodSecurity

  • 开启基于断言的方法级保护, 3种类型:
    • securedEnabled, 开启 @Secured 断言, 保护controller/service 的方法:
    @Secured("ROLE_ADMIN")
        public User getAllUsers() {}
    
        @Secured({"ROLE_USER", "ROLE_ADMIN"})
        public User getUser(Long id) {}
    
        @Secured("IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY")
        public boolean isUsernameAvailable() {}
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    • jsr250Enabled, 开启 @RolesAllowed 断言:
    @RolesAllowed("ROLE_ADMIN")
        public Poll createPoll() {} 
    复制代码
    • prePostEnabled, 开启通过@PreAuthorize 和 @PostAuthorize 控制的更复杂的权限控制表达式:
    @PreAuthorize("isAnonymous()")
        public boolean isUsernameAvailable() {}
    
        @PreAuthorize("hasRole('USER')")
        public Poll createPoll() {}    
    复制代码

3. WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter

  • 提供默认的安全配置, 允许其他类继承并通过覆盖方法的方式自定义安全配置.
  • SecurityConfig 继承于此类, 并覆盖某些方法来自定义安全配置.

4. CustomUserDetailsService

  • 实现接口UserDetailsService.
  • 通过覆盖接口的loadUserByUsername方法来实现认证用户操作.

5. JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint

  • 实现 AuthenticationEntryPoint 接口.
  • 对于没有通过认证而访问特殊资源的用户返回401未授权错误.

6. JwtAuthenticationFilter

  • 从所有请求的Authorization请求头中获取 JWT token
  • 验证token
  • 加载token相关的用户信息
  • 在Spring Security 的安全容器中设置用户信息. Spring Security 使用此用户信息操作授权验证. 我们可以在controller中通过获取安全容器中的用户信息来操作我们的业务逻辑.

7. AuthenticationManagerBuilder 和 AuthenticationManager

  • AuthenticationManager 是 Spring Security 中实现用户认证的主要接口
  • AuthenticationManagerBuilder 负责生成 AuthenticationManager
  • 可以通过AuthenticationManagerBuilder 建立基于内存的认证, LDAP 认证, JDBC认证, 或者添加自己的自定义认证.
  • 此例子中, 我们提供 customUserDetailsService 和 passwordEncoder来构建AuthenticationManager.
  • 通过配置好的AuthenticationManager在登录api中认证用户.

8. HttpSecurity configurations

  • HttpSecurity 配置信息包括csrf, session管理, 基于不同条件的资源保护策略等安全配置功能.
  • 此例子中, 我们开发静态资源及一些公共api, 其他资源则限制只有认证用户可访问.
  • 我们在配置中加入了 JWTAuthenticationEntryPoint 和 自定义的 JWTAuthenticationFilter.

3. 创建自定义Spring Security Classes, Filters, and Annotations

3.1. 自定义 Spring Security AuthenticationEntryPoint

  • 定义 JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint 实现 AuthenticationEntryPoint 接口及其中的commence方法.
  • commence方法会在未认证用户视图访问需要认证的资源时触发.
  • 此例子中, 我们简单的返回包含异常信息的 401 错误.

JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint

package com.example.polls.security;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.security.core.AuthenticationException;
import org.springframework.security.web.AuthenticationEntryPoint;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;

@Component
public class JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint implements AuthenticationEntryPoint {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JwtAuthenticationEntryPoint.class);
    @Override
    public void commence(HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest,
                         HttpServletResponse httpServletResponse,
                         AuthenticationException e) throws IOException, ServletException {
        logger.error("Responding with unauthorized error. Message - {}", e.getMessage());
        httpServletResponse.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_UNAUTHORIZED, e.getMessage());
    }
}
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3.2. 自定义 Spring Security UserDetails

  • UserPrincipal 实现 UserDetails接口.
  • 自定义UserDetailsService接口会返回此对象.
  • Spring Security使用此信息进行认证及授权操作.

UserPrincipal

package com.example.polls.security;

import com.example.polls.model.User;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonIgnore;
import org.springframework.security.core.GrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.authority.SimpleGrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;

import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Objects;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

public class UserPrincipal implements UserDetails {
    private Long id;

    private String name;

    private String username;

    @JsonIgnore
    private String email;

    @JsonIgnore
    private String password;

    private Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> authorities;

    public UserPrincipal(Long id, String name, String username, String email, String password, Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> authorities) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
        this.username = username;
        this.email = email;
        this.password = password;
        this.authorities = authorities;
    }

    public static UserPrincipal create(User user) {
        List<GrantedAuthority> authorities = user.getRoles().stream().map(role ->
                new SimpleGrantedAuthority(role.getName().name())
        ).collect(Collectors.toList());

        return new UserPrincipal(
                user.getId(),
                user.getName(),
                user.getUsername(),
                user.getEmail(),
                user.getPassword(),
                authorities
        );
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;
    }

    @Override
    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    @Override
    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    @Override
    public Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> getAuthorities() {
        return authorities;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonLocked() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isCredentialsNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isEnabled() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (this == o) return true;
        if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;
        UserPrincipal that = (UserPrincipal) o;
        return Objects.equals(id, that.id);
    }

    @Override
    public int hashCode() {

        return Objects.hash(id);
    }
}

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3.3. 自定义 Spring Security UserDetailsService

  • 通过用户名加载用户数据

CustomUserDetailsService

package com.example.polls.security;

import com.example.polls.exception.ResourceNotFoundException;
import com.example.polls.model.User;
import com.example.polls.repository.UserRepository;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UsernameNotFoundException;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

@Service
public class CustomUserDetailsService implements UserDetailsService {

    @Autowired
    UserRepository userRepository;

    @Override
    @Transactional
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String usernameOrEmail)
            throws UsernameNotFoundException {
        User user = userRepository.findByUsernameOrEmail(usernameOrEmail, usernameOrEmail)
                .orElseThrow(() ->
                        new UsernameNotFoundException("User not found with username or email : " + usernameOrEmail)
        );

        return UserPrincipal.create(user);
    }

    @Transactional
    public UserDetails loadUserById(Long id) {
        User user = userRepository.findById(id).orElseThrow(
            () -> new ResourceNotFoundException("User", "id", id)
        );

        return UserPrincipal.create(user);
    }
}
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3.4. 生成及验证JWT 的 工具类

  • JwtTokenProvider 在用户登录成功后生成JWT, 并负责验证Authorization请求头中的JWT.
  • 在application.properties中定义 JWT 密钥及过期时间
## jwt Properties
app.jwtSecret= JWTSuperSecretKey
app.jwtExpirationInMs = 604800000
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JwtTokenProvider

package com.example.polls.security;

import io.jsonwebtoken.*;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.security.core.Authentication;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

import java.util.Date;

@Component
public class JwtTokenProvider {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JwtTokenProvider.class);

    @Value("${app.jwtSecret}")
    private String jwtSecret;

    @Value("${app.jwtExpirationInMs}")
    private int jwtExpirationInMs;

    public String generateToken(Authentication authentication) {

        UserPrincipal userPrincipal = (UserPrincipal) authentication.getPrincipal();

        Date now = new Date();
        Date expiryDate = new Date(now.getTime() + jwtExpirationInMs);

        return Jwts.builder()
                .setSubject(Long.toString(userPrincipal.getId()))
                .setIssuedAt(new Date())
                .setExpiration(expiryDate)
                .signWith(SignatureAlgorithm.HS512, jwtSecret)
                .compact();
    }

    public Long getUserIdFromJWT(String token) {
        Claims claims = Jwts.parser()
                .setSigningKey(jwtSecret)
                .parseClaimsJws(token)
                .getBody();

        return Long.parseLong(claims.getSubject());
    }

    public boolean validateToken(String authToken) {
        try {
            Jwts.parser().setSigningKey(jwtSecret).parseClaimsJws(authToken);
            return true;
        } catch (SignatureException ex) {
            logger.error("Invalid JWT signature");
        } catch (MalformedJwtException ex) {
            logger.error("Invalid JWT token");
        } catch (ExpiredJwtException ex) {
            logger.error("Expired JWT token");
        } catch (UnsupportedJwtException ex) {
            logger.error("Unsupported JWT token");
        } catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
            logger.error("JWT claims string is empty.");
        }
        return false;
    }
}

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3.5. 自定义 Spring Security AuthenticationFilter

  • JWTAuthenticationFilter 从请求中获取JWT token, 验证, 加载token相关用户信息, 并传递给 Spring Security.

JwtAuthenticationFilter

package com.example.polls.security;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.context.SecurityContextHolder;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.WebAuthenticationDetailsSource;
import org.springframework.util.StringUtils;
import org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter;

import javax.servlet.FilterChain;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;

public class JwtAuthenticationFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter {

    @Autowired
    private JwtTokenProvider tokenProvider;

    @Autowired
    private CustomUserDetailsService customUserDetailsService;

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JwtAuthenticationFilter.class);

    @Override
    protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, FilterChain filterChain) throws ServletException, IOException {
        try {
            String jwt = getJwtFromRequest(request);

            if (StringUtils.hasText(jwt) && tokenProvider.validateToken(jwt)) {
                Long userId = tokenProvider.getUserIdFromJWT(jwt);

                // 可以将用户名及角色信息都编码到 JWT claims中 
                // 然后通过解析JWT 的 claims 对象来 创建UserDetails信息
                // 避免重复查询数据库

                UserDetails userDetails = customUserDetailsService.loadUserById(userId);
                UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(userDetails, null, userDetails.getAuthorities());
                authentication.setDetails(new WebAuthenticationDetailsSource().buildDetails(request));

                SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);
            }
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            logger.error("Could not set user authentication in security context", ex);
        }

        filterChain.doFilter(request, response);
    }

    private String getJwtFromRequest(HttpServletRequest request) {
        String bearerToken = request.getHeader("Authorization");
        if (StringUtils.hasText(bearerToken) && bearerToken.startsWith("Bearer ")) {
            return bearerToken.substring(7, bearerToken.length());
        }
        return null;
    }
}

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3.6. 自定义断言获取当前用户

  • Spring Security 提供 @AuthenticationPrincipal 断言在Controller 中获取当前认证的用户
  • CurrentUser 断言封装了 AuthenticationPrincipal

CurrentUser

package com.example.polls.security;

import org.springframework.security.core.annotation.AuthenticationPrincipal;
import java.lang.annotation.*;

@Target({ElementType.PARAMETER, ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@AuthenticationPrincipal
public @interface CurrentUser {

}
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  • 通过创建元断言, 可以避免在工程中过多绑定Spring Security的断言,减少对Spring Security 的依赖. 当需要移除Spring Security的时候, 可以简单的修改 CurrentUser 断言.

4. 登录注册API

4.1. 请求Payloads

LoginRequest

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank;

import lombok.Data;

@Data
public class LoginRequest {
	@NotBlank
	private String usernameOrEmail;
	@NotBlank
	private String password;
}
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SignUpRequest

import javax.validation.constraints.*;

import lombok.Data;

@Data
public class SignUpRequest {
    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 4, max = 40)
    private String name;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 3, max = 15)
    private String username;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(max = 40)
    @Email
    private String email;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 6, max = 20)
    private String password;
    
    // TODO: 手机号
}

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4.2. 响应Payloads

JwtAuthenticationResponse

import lombok.Data;

@Data
public class JwtAuthenticationResponse {
	private String accessToken;
	private String tokenType = "Bearer";

	public JwtAuthenticationResponse(String accessToken) {
		this.accessToken = accessToken;
	}
}
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ApiResponse

import lombok.Data;

@Data
public class ApiResponse {
    private Boolean success;
    private String message;

    public ApiResponse(Boolean success, String message) {
        this.success = success;
        this.message = message;
    }
}
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4.3. 自定义业务异常

AppException

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseStatus;

@ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
public class AppException extends RuntimeException {
    public AppException(String message) {
        super(message);
    }

    public AppException(String message, Throwable cause) {
        super(message, cause);
    }
}

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BadRequestException

package com.example.polls.exception;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseStatus;

@ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST)
public class BadRequestException extends RuntimeException {

    public BadRequestException(String message) {
        super(message);
    }

    public BadRequestException(String message, Throwable cause) {
        super(message, cause);
    }
}
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ResourceNotFoundException

package com.example.polls.exception;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseStatus;

@ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND)
public class ResourceNotFoundException extends RuntimeException {
    private String resourceName;
    private String fieldName;
    private Object fieldValue;

    public ResourceNotFoundException( String resourceName, String fieldName, Object fieldValue) {
        super(String.format("%s not found with %s : '%s'", resourceName, fieldName, fieldValue));
        this.resourceName = resourceName;
        this.fieldName = fieldName;
        this.fieldValue = fieldValue;
    }

    public String getResourceName() {
        return resourceName;
    }

    public String getFieldName() {
        return fieldName;
    }

    public Object getFieldValue() {
        return fieldValue;
    }
}

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4.4. 认证 Controller

AuthController

package com.example.polls.controller;

import com.example.polls.exception.AppException;
import com.example.polls.model.Role;
import com.example.polls.model.RoleName;
import com.example.polls.model.User;
import com.example.polls.payload.ApiResponse;
import com.example.polls.payload.JwtAuthenticationResponse;
import com.example.polls.payload.LoginRequest;
import com.example.polls.payload.SignUpRequest;
import com.example.polls.repository.RoleRepository;
import com.example.polls.repository.UserRepository;
import com.example.polls.security.JwtTokenProvider;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.AuthenticationManager;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.Authentication;
import org.springframework.security.core.context.SecurityContextHolder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.support.ServletUriComponentsBuilder;

import javax.validation.Valid;
import java.net.URI;
import java.util.Collections;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api/auth")
public class AuthController {

    @Autowired
    AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

    @Autowired
    UserRepository userRepository;

    @Autowired
    RoleRepository roleRepository;

    @Autowired
    PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder;

    @Autowired
    JwtTokenProvider tokenProvider;

    @PostMapping("/signin")
    public ResponseEntity<?> authenticateUser(@Valid @RequestBody LoginRequest loginRequest) {

        Authentication authentication = authenticationManager.authenticate(
                new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
                        loginRequest.getUsernameOrEmail(),
                        loginRequest.getPassword()
                )
        );

        SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);

        String jwt = tokenProvider.generateToken(authentication);
        return ResponseEntity.ok(new JwtAuthenticationResponse(jwt));
    }

    @PostMapping("/signup")
    public ResponseEntity<?> registerUser(@Valid @RequestBody SignUpRequest signUpRequest) {
        if(userRepository.existsByUsername(signUpRequest.getUsername())) {
            return new ResponseEntity(new ApiResponse(false, "Username is already taken!"),
                    HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
        }

        if(userRepository.existsByEmail(signUpRequest.getEmail())) {
            return new ResponseEntity(new ApiResponse(false, "Email Address already in use!"),
                    HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
        }

        // Creating user's account
        User user = new User(signUpRequest.getName(), signUpRequest.getUsername(),
                signUpRequest.getEmail(), signUpRequest.getPassword());

        user.setPassword(passwordEncoder.encode(user.getPassword()));

        Role userRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_USER)
                .orElseThrow(() -> new AppException("User Role not set."));

        user.setRoles(Collections.singleton(userRole));

        User result = userRepository.save(user);

        URI location = ServletUriComponentsBuilder
                .fromCurrentContextPath().path("/users/{username}")
                .buildAndExpand(result.getUsername()).toUri();

        return ResponseEntity.created(location).body(new ApiResponse(true, "User registered successfully"));
    }
}

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Spring Security官方文档

原文 

https://juejin.im/post/5e6cf3ab51882549112b544c

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