学习Java8系列-Lambda

Lambda演进

小王在公司正在开发一个学生管理系统,产品经理向他提出一个需求,要筛选出年龄大于15的学生,于是小王写出了以下代码:

    public static List<Student> filterAgeStudent(List<Student> students) {
        List<Student> list = Lists.newArrayList();
        for (Student student : students) {
            if (student.getAge() > 15) {
                list.add(student);
            }
        }
        return list;
    }

过了几天产品经理又提出了一个需求,要筛选出体重大于50KG的学生,于是小王新增了一个方法:

    public static List<Student> filterWeightStudent(List<Student> students) {
        List<Student> list = Lists.newArrayList();
        for (Student student : students) {
            if (student.getWeight() > 50) {
                list.add(student);
            }
        }
        return list;
    }

过了一段时间,产品提出了要筛选出体重大于50并且年龄要大于15的学生,小王突然感觉到这不是一个简单的需求,于是小王仔细思考了一下,突然想到将每种筛选的策略抽象成为一个接口,并且将这个接口当做一个参数传入方法中,这样每次就可以只新增策略,其他代码不需要更改了,这样就满足了软件设计的六大原则的开放闭合原则,于是乎诞生以下的设计和代码:

学习Java8系列-Lambda

public interface StudentPredicate {
    boolean filter(Student student);
}
public class AgeStudentPredicate implements StudentPredicate {
    @Override
    public boolean filter(Student student) {
        return student.getAge() > 20 ? true : false;
    }
}
public static List<Student> filterStudent(List<Student> students,
                                              StudentPredicate predicate) {
    List<Student> list = Lists.newArrayList();
    for (Student student : students) {
       if (predicate.filter(student)) {
          list.add(student);
       }
    }
    return list;
}

经过一段时间的学习,小王接触到匿名类,于是小王代码进行更改,以后再也不需要写策略了:

List<Student> list = filterStudent(students, new StudentPredicate() {
     @Override
     public boolean filter(Student student) {
         return student.getAge() > 15;
     }
});

学习到匿名类以后,小王感觉到Java的浩瀚,然后继续学习,后来接触到Lambda,于是对待做了以下改造:

 List<Student> list = filterStudent(students, student -> student.getAge() > 15);

Lambda知识整理

Lambda定义

从上面的演进过程,我们基本上可以得到Lambda表达式是一种匿名函数,简单地说,它是没有声明的方法,也即没有访问修饰符、返回值声明和名字。Java中的Lambda表达式通常使用(argument) -> (body)语法书写,常用的Lamda表达式例子有:

(int a, int b) -> {  return a + b; }

() -> System.out.println("Hello World");

(String s) -> { System.out.println(s); }

函数式接口

函数式接口指的是是只包含一个抽象方法声明的接口。例如java.lang.Runnable就是一种函数式接口,在 Runnable接口中只声明了一个抽象方法方法void run();

@FunctionalInterface
public interface Runnable {
    public abstract void run();
}

对于注解@FunctionalInterface对于lamda表达式来说的话并不是必要的,@FunctionalInterface是Java8新加入的一种接口,用于指明该接口类型声明是根据Java语言规范定义的函数式接口。Java8还声明了一些Lambda表达式可以使用的函数式接口,当你注释的接口不是有效的函数式接口时,可以使用@FunctionalInterface解决编译层面的错误。

常用函数式

Java8中在java.util.function中引入了很多的函数式接口,这里介绍一下3个常用的函数式接口,

  1. Predicate

    Predicate接口定义一个名叫test的抽象方法,它接收泛型T对象,并返回一个boolean类型。经常使用到的地方是在流处理的过程中filter方法,满足条件的数据才会被过滤出来,例如我们上面的例子也可以改造成为Predicate函数式接口的形式。

@FunctionalInterface
public interface Predicate<T> {
   boolean test(T t);
}
public static List<Student> filterStudent(List<Student> students,
                                          Predicate<Student> predicate) {
   List<Student> list = Lists.newArrayList();
   for (Student student : students) {
   if (predicate.test(student)) {
     list.add(student);
   }
  }
  return list;
}
  1. Consumer

    Consumer定义一个名叫accept的抽象方法,他接受泛型T的对象,没有返回值。如果你需要访问泛型对象T,并其进行修改,就使用Consumer。经常使用的地方就是常用的forEach方法。

@FunctionalInterface
public interface Consumer<T> {
  void accept(T t);
}
void forEachOrdered(Consumer<? super T> action);
  1. Function

    Function定义一个叫apply的方法,他接受一个泛型对象T,返回一个泛型对象R。如果你需要定义一个Lambda表达式,将输入的对象映射到输出,就使用Function,经常使用到的地方就是常用的map方法。

@FunctionalInterface
public interface Function<T, R> {
  R apply(T t);
}
<R> Stream<R> map(Function<? super T, ? extends R> mapper);

Lambda原理窥探

小王经过上面一系列学习,开始思考Lambda的原理是什么,因为Java8中每一个Lambda表达式必须有一个函数式接口与之对应,小王就思考经过编译器编译以后到可能实现的方式有两种,一种生成实现接口的类,另外一种是内部类,于是决定看一下反编译的以后代码,以解除心中的疑惑;

@FunctionalInterface
public interface Func {
    int add(int x, int y);
}
public class LambdaTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Func func = (x, y) -> x + y;
        System.out.println(func.add(1, 2));
    }
}

通过javap -p -v -c LambdaTest.class查看反编译后的代码,

Classfile /Users/wangtongzhou/Documents/Java/learning/target/classes/com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest.class
  Last modified 2020-7-11; size 1392 bytes
  MD5 checksum ec7d77a8b0b0a0cb5940f80a9b27b3d0
  Compiled from "LambdaTest.java"
public class com.springboot2.learning.javabasic.java8.LambdaTest
  minor version: 0
  major version: 52
  flags: ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_SUPER
Constant pool:
   #1 = Methodref          #7.#29         // java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
   #2 = InvokeDynamic      #0:#34         // #0:add:()Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func;
   #3 = Fieldref           #35.#36        // java/lang/System.out:Ljava/io/PrintStream;
   #4 = InterfaceMethodref #37.#38        // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func.add:(II)I
   #5 = Methodref          #39.#40        // java/io/PrintStream.println:(I)V
   #6 = Class              #41            // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest
   #7 = Class              #42            // java/lang/Object
   #8 = Utf8               <init>
   #9 = Utf8               ()V
  #10 = Utf8               Code
  #11 = Utf8               LineNumberTable
  #12 = Utf8               LocalVariableTable
  #13 = Utf8               this
  #14 = Utf8               Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest;
  #15 = Utf8               main
  #16 = Utf8               ([Ljava/lang/String;)V
  #17 = Utf8               args
  #18 = Utf8               [Ljava/lang/String;
  #19 = Utf8               func
  #20 = Utf8               Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func;
  #21 = Utf8               MethodParameters
  #22 = Utf8               lambda$main$0
  #23 = Utf8               (II)I
  #24 = Utf8               x
  #25 = Utf8               I
  #26 = Utf8               y
  #27 = Utf8               SourceFile
  #28 = Utf8               LambdaTest.java
  #29 = NameAndType        #8:#9          // "<init>":()V
  #30 = Utf8               BootstrapMethods
  #31 = MethodHandle       #6:#43         // invokestatic java/lang/invoke/LambdaMetafactory.metafactory:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandle;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #32 = MethodType         #23            //  (II)I
  #33 = MethodHandle       #6:#44         // invokestatic com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest.lambda$main$0:(II)I
  #34 = NameAndType        #45:#46        // add:()Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func;
  #35 = Class              #47            // java/lang/System
  #36 = NameAndType        #48:#49        // out:Ljava/io/PrintStream;
  #37 = Class              #50            // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func
  #38 = NameAndType        #45:#23        // add:(II)I
  #39 = Class              #51            // java/io/PrintStream
  #40 = NameAndType        #52:#53        // println:(I)V
  #41 = Utf8               com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest
  #42 = Utf8               java/lang/Object
  #43 = Methodref          #54.#55        // java/lang/invoke/LambdaMetafactory.metafactory:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandle;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #44 = Methodref          #6.#56         // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest.lambda$main$0:(II)I
  #45 = Utf8               add
  #46 = Utf8               ()Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func;
  #47 = Utf8               java/lang/System
  #48 = Utf8               out
  #49 = Utf8               Ljava/io/PrintStream;
  #50 = Utf8               com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func
  #51 = Utf8               java/io/PrintStream
  #52 = Utf8               println
  #53 = Utf8               (I)V
  #54 = Class              #57            // java/lang/invoke/LambdaMetafactory
  #55 = NameAndType        #58:#62        // metafactory:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandle;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #56 = NameAndType        #22:#23        // lambda$main$0:(II)I
  #57 = Utf8               java/lang/invoke/LambdaMetafactory
  #58 = Utf8               metafactory
  #59 = Class              #64            // java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup
  #60 = Utf8               Lookup
  #61 = Utf8               InnerClasses
  #62 = Utf8               (Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandle;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #63 = Class              #65            // java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles
  #64 = Utf8               java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup
  #65 = Utf8               java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles
{
  public com.springboot2.learning.javabasic.java8.LambdaTest();
    descriptor: ()V
    flags: ACC_PUBLIC
    Code:
      stack=1, locals=1, args_size=1
         0: aload_0
         1: invokespecial #1                  // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
         4: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 3: 0
      LocalVariableTable:
        Start  Length  Slot  Name   Signature
            0       5     0  this   Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest;

  public static void main(java.lang.String[]);
    descriptor: ([Ljava/lang/String;)V
    flags: ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_STATIC
    Code:
      stack=4, locals=2, args_size=1
         0: invokedynamic #2,  0              // InvokeDynamic #0:add:()Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func;
         5: astore_1
         6: getstatic     #3                  // Field java/lang/System.out:Ljava/io/PrintStream;
         9: aload_1
        10: iconst_1
        11: iconst_2
        12: invokeinterface #4,  3            // InterfaceMethod com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func.add:(II)I
        17: invokevirtual #5                  // Method java/io/PrintStream.println:(I)V
        20: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 5: 0
        line 6: 6
        line 7: 20
      LocalVariableTable:
        Start  Length  Slot  Name   Signature
            0      21     0  args   [Ljava/lang/String;
            6      15     1  func   Lcom/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func;
    MethodParameters:
      Name                           Flags
      args

  private static int lambda$main$0(int, int);
    descriptor: (II)I
    flags: ACC_PRIVATE, ACC_STATIC, ACC_SYNTHETIC
    Code:
      stack=2, locals=2, args_size=2
         0: iload_0
         1: iload_1
         2: iadd
         3: ireturn
      LineNumberTable:
        line 5: 0
      LocalVariableTable:
        Start  Length  Slot  Name   Signature
            0       4     0     x   I
            0       4     1     y   I
    MethodParameters:
      Name                           Flags
      x                              synthetic
      y                              synthetic
}
SourceFile: "LambdaTest.java"
InnerClasses:
     public static final #60= #59 of #63; //Lookup=class java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup of class java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles
BootstrapMethods:
  0: #31 invokestatic java/lang/invoke/LambdaMetafactory.metafactory:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandle;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
    Method arguments:
      #32 (II)I
      #33 invokestatic com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest.lambda$main$0:(II)I

反编译以后lambda表达式被编译成为一个lambda$main$0的函数,其实就是一段(x, y) -> x + y的方法,在看main方法主要分为以下8个步骤:

  1. 通过invokedynamic指令生成调用对象;
  2. 存入本地缓存
  3. 加载java.lang.System.out静态方法
  4. 将lambda表达式生成的对象加载入执行栈;
  5. 将int类型1加载入执行栈;
  6. 将int类型2加载入执行栈;
  7. 执行lambda表达式生成的对象的add方法;
  8. 输出执行结果;
    学习Java8系列-Lambda 重点部分
    从mian方法中我们的重点就在于invokedynamic这个指令,重点要了解下是如何通过invokedynamic指令生成目标对象,invokedynamic指令通过找到BootstrapMethods中的方法,生成动态调用点,也是调用LambdaMetafactory的metafactory方法。
    学习Java8系列-Lambda
public static CallSite metafactory(MethodHandles.Lookup caller,
                                       String invokedName,
                                       MethodType invokedType,
                                       MethodType samMethodType,
                                       MethodHandle implMethod,
                                       MethodType instantiatedMethodType)
            throws LambdaConversionException {
        AbstractValidatingLambdaMetafactory mf;
        mf = new InnerClassLambdaMetafactory(caller, invokedType,
                                             invokedName, samMethodType,
                                             implMethod, instantiatedMethodType,
                                             false, EMPTY_CLASS_ARRAY, 
                                             EMPTY_MT_ARRAY);
        mf.validateMetafactoryArgs();
        return mf.buildCallSite();
}

通过源码可以看出,metafactory方法通过InnerClassLambdaMetafactory类生成对象,并提供后续调用,在InnerClassLambdaMetafactory源码中可以看到,有提供开关是否dump生成的class文件。

学习Java8系列-Lambda
学习Java8系列-Lambda

接下来我们通过设置启动参数-Djdk.internal.lambda.dumpProxyClasses查看中间对象,增加这个参数以后会生成LambdaTest$$Lambda$1类,

final class LambdaTest$$Lambda$1 implements Func {
    private LambdaTest$$Lambda$1() {
    }

    @Hidden
    public int add(int var1, int var2) {
        return LambdaTest.lambda$main$0(var1, var2);
    }
}

我们再看下上面这个类反编译以后的情况

Classfile /Users/wangtongzhou/Documents/Java/learning/com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest$$Lambda$1.class
  Last modified 2020-7-11; size 437 bytes
  MD5 checksum 729979930540708c60f4e71e63b69321
final class com.springboot2.learning.javabasic.java8.LambdaTest$$Lambda$1 implements com.springboot2.learning.javabasic.java8.Func
  minor version: 0
  major version: 52
  flags: ACC_FINAL, ACC_SUPER, ACC_SYNTHETIC
Constant pool:
   #1 = Utf8               com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest$$Lambda$1
   #2 = Class              #1             // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest$$Lambda$1
   #3 = Utf8               java/lang/Object
   #4 = Class              #3             // java/lang/Object
   #5 = Utf8               com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func
   #6 = Class              #5             // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/Func
   #7 = Utf8               <init>
   #8 = Utf8               ()V
   #9 = NameAndType        #7:#8          // "<init>":()V
  #10 = Methodref          #4.#9          // java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
  #11 = Utf8               add
  #12 = Utf8               (II)I
  #13 = Utf8               Ljava/lang/invoke/LambdaForm$Hidden;
  #14 = Utf8               com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest
  #15 = Class              #14            // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest
  #16 = Utf8               lambda$main$0
  #17 = NameAndType        #16:#12        // lambda$main$0:(II)I
  #18 = Methodref          #15.#17        // com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest.lambda$main$0:(II)I
  #19 = Utf8               Code
  #20 = Utf8               RuntimeVisibleAnnotations
{
  private com.springboot2.learning.javabasic.java8.LambdaTest$$Lambda$1();
    descriptor: ()V
    flags: ACC_PRIVATE
    Code:
      stack=1, locals=1, args_size=1
         0: aload_0
         1: invokespecial #10                 // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
         4: return

  public int add(int, int);
    descriptor: (II)I
    flags: ACC_PUBLIC
    Code:
      stack=2, locals=3, args_size=3
         0: iload_1
         1: iload_2
         2: invokestatic  #18                 // Method com/springboot2/learning/javabasic/java8/LambdaTest.lambda$main$0:(II)I
         5: ireturn
    RuntimeVisibleAnnotations:
      0: #13()
}

由此我们可以得出编译以后的代码为:

public class LambdaTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
       Func func= LambdaTest$$Lambda$1();
       System.out.println(func.add(1, 2));
    }
    private static int lambda$main$0(int x, int y) {
        return x + y;
    }

    static final class LambdaTest$$Lambda$1 implements Func {
    private LambdaTest$$Lambda$1() {
    }

    public int add(int x, inty) {
        return LambdaTest.lambda$main$0(x,y);
    }
  }
}

总结下,Lambda底层就是通过一个静态的内部类实现的;

结尾

欢迎大家点点关注,点点赞,感谢!

学习Java8系列-Lambda

原文 

http://www.cnblogs.com/wtzbk/p/13296427.html

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