Spring Boot 外部化配置实战解析

SpringApplication#run(String... args) 方法中,外部化配置关键流程分为以下四步

public ConfigurableApplicationContext run(String... args) {
    ...
    SpringApplicationRunListeners listeners = getRunListeners(args); // 1
    listeners.starting();
    try {
        ApplicationArguments applicationArguments = new DefaultApplicationArguments(
            args);
        ConfigurableEnvironment environment = prepareEnvironment(listeners,
                                                                 applicationArguments); // 2
        configureIgnoreBeanInfo(environment);
        Banner printedBanner = printBanner(environment);
        context = createApplicationContext();
        exceptionReporters = getSpringFactoriesInstances(
            SpringBootExceptionReporter.class,
            new Class[] { ConfigurableApplicationContext.class }, context);
        prepareContext(context, environment, listeners, applicationArguments,
                       printedBanner); // 3
        refreshContext(context); // 4
        afterRefresh(context, applicationArguments);
        stopWatch.stop();
        if (this.logStartupInfo) {
            new StartupInfoLogger(this.mainApplicationClass)
                .logStarted(getApplicationLog(), stopWatch);
        }
        listeners.started(context);
        callRunners(context, applicationArguments);
    }
    ...
}
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关键流程思维导图

Spring Boot 外部化配置实战解析

关键流程详解

对入口程序中标记的四步,分析如下

1、 SpringApplication#getRunListeners

加载 META-INF/spring.factories 获取 SpringApplicationRunListener实例集合,存放的对象是 EventPublishingRunListener 类型 以及自定义的 SpringApplicationRunListener 实现类型

Spring Boot 外部化配置实战解析

2、 SpringApplication#prepareEnvironment

prepareEnvironment 方法中,主要的三步如下

private ConfigurableEnvironment prepareEnvironment(SpringApplicationRunListeners listeners,
    ApplicationArguments applicationArguments) {
    // Create and configure the environment
    ConfigurableEnvironment environment = getOrCreateEnvironment(); // 2.1
    configureEnvironment(environment, applicationArguments.getSourceArgs()); // 2.2
    listeners.environmentPrepared(environment); // 2.3
    ...
    return environment;
}
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2.1、 getOrCreateEnvironment 方法

WebApplicationType.SERVLET web应用类型下,会创建 StandardServletEnvironment ,本文以 StandardServletEnvironment 为例,类的层次结构如下

Spring Boot 外部化配置实战解析

当创建 StandardServletEnvironmentStandardServletEnvironment 父类 AbstractEnvironment 调用 customizePropertySources 方法,会执行 StandardServletEnvironment#customizePropertySourcesStandardEnvironment#customizePropertySources源码如下

AbstractEnvironment

public AbstractEnvironment() {
    customizePropertySources(this.propertySources);
    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
        logger.debug("Initialized " + getClass().getSimpleName() + " with PropertySources " + this.propertySources);
    }
}
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StandardServletEnvironment#customizePropertySources

/** Servlet context init parameters property source name: {@value} */
public static final String SERVLET_CONTEXT_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME = "servletContextInitParams";

/** Servlet config init parameters property source name: {@value} */
public static final String SERVLET_CONFIG_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME = "servletConfigInitParams";

/** JNDI property source name: {@value} */
public static final String JNDI_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME = "jndiProperties";

@Override
protected void customizePropertySources(MutablePropertySources propertySources) {
    propertySources.addLast(new StubPropertySource(SERVLET_CONFIG_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME));
    propertySources.addLast(new StubPropertySource(SERVLET_CONTEXT_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME));
    if (JndiLocatorDelegate.isDefaultJndiEnvironmentAvailable()) {
        propertySources.addLast(new JndiPropertySource(JNDI_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME));
    }
    super.customizePropertySources(propertySources);
}
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StandardEnvironment#customizePropertySources

/** System environment property source name: {@value} */
public static final String SYSTEM_ENVIRONMENT_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME = "systemEnvironment";

/** JVM system properties property source name: {@value} */
public static final String SYSTEM_PROPERTIES_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME = "systemProperties";

@Override
protected void customizePropertySources(MutablePropertySources propertySources) {
    propertySources.addLast(new MapPropertySource(SYSTEM_PROPERTIES_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME, getSystemProperties()));
    propertySources.addLast(new SystemEnvironmentPropertySource(SYSTEM_ENVIRONMENT_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME,getSystemEnvironment());
}
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PropertySources 顺序:

  1. servletConfigInitParams
  2. servletContextInitParams
  3. jndiProperties
  4. systemProperties
  5. systemEnvironment

PropertySourcesPropertySource 关系为 1 对 N

2.2、 configureEnvironment 方法

调用 configurePropertySources(environment, args) , 在方法里面设置 EnvironmentPropertySources , 包含 defaultPropertiesSimpleCommandLinePropertySource (commandLineArgs), PropertySources 添加 defaultProperties 到最后,添加 SimpleCommandLinePropertySource (commandLineArgs)到最前面

PropertySources 顺序:

  1. commandLineArgs

  2. servletConfigInitParams

  3. servletContextInitParams

  4. jndiProperties

  5. systemProperties

  6. systemEnvironment

  7. defaultProperties

2.3、 listeners.environmentPrepared 方法

会按优先级顺序遍历执行 SpringApplicationRunListener#environmentPrepared ,比如 EventPublishingRunListener 和 自定义的 SpringApplicationRunListener

  • EventPublishingRunListener 发布 ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent 事件

    • ConfigFileApplicationListener 监听 ApplicationEvent 事件 、处理 ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent 事件,加载所有 EnvironmentPostProcessor 包括自己,然后按照顺序进行方法回调
      • ConfigFileApplicationListener#postProcessEnvironment 方法回调 ,然后 addPropertySources 方法调用 RandomValuePropertySource#addToEnvironment ,在 systemEnvironment 后面添加 random,然后添加配置文件的属性源(详见源码 ConfigFileApplicationListener.Loader#load()
  • 扩展点

    • 自定义 SpringApplicationRunListener ,重写 environmentPrepared 方法

    • 自定义 EnvironmentPostProcessor

    • 自定义 ApplicationListener 监听 ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent 事件

ConfigFileApplicationListener ,即是 EnvironmentPostProcessor ,又是 ApplicationListener ,类的层次结构如下

Spring Boot 外部化配置实战解析
@Override
public void onApplicationEvent(ApplicationEvent event) {
    // 处理 ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent 事件
    if (event instanceof ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent) {
        onApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent(
            (ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent) event);
    }
    // 处理 ApplicationPreparedEvent 事件
    if (event instanceof ApplicationPreparedEvent) {
        onApplicationPreparedEvent(event);
    }
}

private void onApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent(
    ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent event) {
    // 加载 META-INF/spring.factories 中配置的 EnvironmentPostProcessor
    List<EnvironmentPostProcessor> postProcessors = loadPostProcessors();
    // 加载自己 ConfigFileApplicationListener
    postProcessors.add(this);
    // 按照 Ordered 进行优先级排序
    AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(postProcessors);
    // 回调 EnvironmentPostProcessor
    for (EnvironmentPostProcessor postProcessor : postProcessors) {
        postProcessor.postProcessEnvironment(event.getEnvironment(),
                                             event.getSpringApplication());
    }
}

List<EnvironmentPostProcessor> loadPostProcessors() {
    return SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactories(EnvironmentPostProcessor.class,
                                               getClass().getClassLoader());
}

@Override
public void postProcessEnvironment(ConfigurableEnvironment environment,
                                   SpringApplication application) {
    addPropertySources(environment, application.getResourceLoader());
}

/**
  * Add config file property sources to the specified environment.
  * @param environment the environment to add source to
  * @param resourceLoader the resource loader
  * @see #addPostProcessors(ConfigurableApplicationContext)
  */
protected void addPropertySources(ConfigurableEnvironment environment,
                                  ResourceLoader resourceLoader) {
    RandomValuePropertySource.addToEnvironment(environment);
    // 添加配置文件的属性源
    new Loader(environment, resourceLoader).load();
}
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RandomValuePropertySource

public static void addToEnvironment(ConfigurableEnvironment environment) {
    // 在 systemEnvironment 后面添加 random
    environment.getPropertySources().addAfter(
        StandardEnvironment.SYSTEM_ENVIRONMENT_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME,
        new RandomValuePropertySource(RANDOM_PROPERTY_SOURCE_NAME));
    logger.trace("RandomValuePropertySource add to Environment");
}
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添加配置文件的属性源:

执行 new Loader(environment, resourceLoader).load(); , 调用 load(Profile, DocumentFilterFactory, DocumentConsumer) (getSearchLocations() 获取配置文件位置,可以指定通过 spring.config.additional-location 、spring.config.location 、spring.config.name 参数或者使用默认值 ), 然后调用 addLoadedPropertySources -> addLoadedPropertySource (加载 查找出来的 PropertySourcePropertySources ,并确保放置到 defaultProperties 的前面 )

默认的查找位置,配置为 "classpath:/,classpath:/config/,file:./,file:./config/" ,查找顺序从后向前

PropertySources 顺序:

  1. commandLineArgs
  2. servletConfigInitParams
  3. servletContextInitParams
  4. jndiProperties
  5. systemProperties
  6. systemEnvironment
  7. random
  8. application.properties …
  9. defaultProperties

3、 SpringApplication#prepareContext

prepareContext 方法中,主要的三步如下

private void prepareContext(ConfigurableApplicationContext context,
                            ConfigurableEnvironment environment, 
                            SpringApplicationRunListeners listeners,
                            ApplicationArguments applicationArguments, 
                            Banner printedBanner) {
    ...
    applyInitializers(context); // 3.1
    listeners.contextPrepared(context); //3.2
    ...
    listeners.contextLoaded(context); // 3.3
}
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3.1、 applyInitializers 方法

会遍历执行所有的 ApplicationContextInitializer#initialize

  • 扩展点
    • 自定义 ApplicationContextInitializer

3.2、 listeners.contextPrepared 方法

会按优先级顺序遍历执行 SpringApplicationRunListener#contextPrepared ,比如 EventPublishingRunListener 和 自定义的 SpringApplicationRunListener

  • 扩展点
    • 自定义 SpringApplicationRunListener ,重写 contextPrepared 方法

3.3、 listeners.contextLoaded 方法

会按优先级顺序遍历执行 SpringApplicationRunListener#contextLoaded ,比如 EventPublishingRunListener 和 自定义的 SpringApplicationRunListener

  • EventPublishingRunListener 发布 ApplicationPreparedEvent 事件

    • ConfigFileApplicationListener 监听 ApplicationEvent 事件 处理 ApplicationPreparedEvent 事件
  • 扩展点

    • 自定义 SpringApplicationRunListener ,重写 contextLoaded 方法
    • 自定义 ApplicationListener ,监听 ApplicationPreparedEvent 事件

ConfigFileApplicationListener

@Override
public void onApplicationEvent(ApplicationEvent event) {
    // 处理 ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent 事件
    if (event instanceof ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent) {
        onApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent(
            (ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent) event);
    }
    // 处理 ApplicationPreparedEvent 事件
    if (event instanceof ApplicationPreparedEvent) {
        onApplicationPreparedEvent(event);
    }
}

private void onApplicationPreparedEvent(ApplicationEvent event) {
    this.logger.replayTo(ConfigFileApplicationListener.class);
    addPostProcessors(((ApplicationPreparedEvent) event).getApplicationContext());
}

// 添加 PropertySourceOrderingPostProcessor 处理器,配置 PropertySources
protected void addPostProcessors(ConfigurableApplicationContext context) {
    context.addBeanFactoryPostProcessor(
        new PropertySourceOrderingPostProcessor(context));
}
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PropertySourceOrderingPostProcessor

// 回调处理(在配置类属性源解析)
@Override
public void postProcessBeanFactory(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory)
    throws BeansException {
    reorderSources(this.context.getEnvironment());
}

// 调整 PropertySources 顺序,先删除 defaultProperties, 再把 defaultProperties 添加到最后
private void reorderSources(ConfigurableEnvironment environment) {
    PropertySource<?> defaultProperties = environment.getPropertySources()
        .remove(DEFAULT_PROPERTIES);
    if (defaultProperties != null) {
        environment.getPropertySources().addLast(defaultProperties);
    }
}
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PropertySourceOrderingPostProcessorBeanFactoryPostProcessor

4、 SpringApplication#refreshContext

会进行 @Configuration 配置类属性源解析,处理 @PropertySource annotations on your  @Configuration classes,但顺序是在 defaultProperties 之后,下面会把 defaultProperties 调整到最后

AbstractApplicationContext#refresh 调用 invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors ( PostProcessorRegistrationDelegate#invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors ), 然后进行 BeanFactoryPostProcessor 的回调处理 ,比如 PropertySourceOrderingPostProcessor 的回调(源码见上文)

PropertySources 顺序:

  1. commandLineArgs

  2. servletConfigInitParams

  3. servletContextInitParams

  4. jndiProperties

  5. systemProperties

  6. systemEnvironment

  7. random

  8. application.properties …

  9. @PropertySource annotations on your  @Configuration classes

  10. defaultProperties

不推荐使用这种方式,推荐使用在 refreshContext 之前准备好, @PropertySource 加载太晚,不会对自动配置产生任何影响

二、扩展外部化配置属性源

1、基于 EnvironmentPostProcessor 扩展

public class CustomEnvironmentPostProcessor implements EnvironmentPostProcessor
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2、基于 ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent 扩展

public class ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEventListener implements ApplicationListener<ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent>
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3、基于 SpringApplicationRunListener 扩展

public class CustomSpringApplicationRunListener implements SpringApplicationRunListener, Ordered
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可以重写方法 environmentPrepared、contextPrepared、contextLoaded 进行扩展

4、基于 ApplicationContextInitializer 扩展

public class CustomApplicationContextInitializer implements ApplicationContextInitializer
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关于与 Spring Cloud Config Client 整合,对外部化配置加载的扩展(绑定到Config Server,使用远端的property sources 初始化 Environment ),参考源码 PropertySourceBootstrapConfiguration (是对 ApplicationContextInitializer 的扩展)、 ConfigServicePropertySourceLocator#locate

获取远端的property sources是 RestTemplate 通过向 http://{spring.cloud.config.uri}/{ spring.application.name }/{spring.cloud.config.profile}/{spring.cloud.config.label} 发送 GET 请求方式获取的

5、基于 ApplicationPreparedEvent 扩展

public class ApplicationPreparedEventListener implements ApplicationListener<ApplicationPreparedEvent>
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6、扩展实战

6.1、扩展配置

在 classpath 下添加配置文件 META-INF/spring.factories , 内容如下

# Spring Application Run Listeners
org.springframework.boot.SpringApplicationRunListener=/
springboot.propertysource.extend.listener.CustomSpringApplicationRunListener

# Application Context Initializers
org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer=/
springboot.propertysource.extend.initializer.CustomApplicationContextInitializer

# Application Listeners
org.springframework.context.ApplicationListener=/
springboot.propertysource.extend.event.listener.ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEventListener,/
springboot.propertysource.extend.event.listener.ApplicationPreparedEventListener

# Environment Post Processors
org.springframework.boot.env.EnvironmentPostProcessor=/
springboot.propertysource.extend.processor.CustomEnvironmentPostProcessor
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以上的扩展可以选取其中一种进行扩展,只是属性源的加载时机不太一样

6.2、扩展实例代码

github.com/shijw823/sp…

PropertySources 顺序:

propertySourceName: [ApplicationPreparedEventListener], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [CustomSpringApplicationRunListener-contextLoaded], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [CustomSpringApplicationRunListener-contextPrepared], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [CustomApplicationContextInitializer], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [bootstrapProperties], propertySourceClassName: [CompositePropertySource]

propertySourceName: [configurationProperties], propertySourceClassName: [ConfigurationPropertySourcesPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [CustomSpringApplicationRunListener-environmentPrepared], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [CustomEnvironmentPostProcessor-dev-application], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [ApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEventListener], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [commandLineArgs], propertySourceClassName: [SimpleCommandLinePropertySource]

propertySourceName: [servletConfigInitParams], propertySourceClassName: [StubPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [servletContextInitParams], propertySourceClassName: [ServletContextPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [systemProperties], propertySourceClassName: [MapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [systemEnvironment], propertySourceClassName: [OriginAwareSystemEnvironmentPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [random], propertySourceClassName: [RandomValuePropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/extend/config/springApplicationRunListener.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/extend/config/applicationListener.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/extend/config/applicationContextInitializer.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/extend/config/environmentPostProcessor.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/extend/config/application.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/extend/config/config.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/application.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [springCloudClientHostInfo], propertySourceClassName: [MapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [applicationConfig: [classpath:/bootstrap.properties]], propertySourceClassName: [OriginTrackedMapPropertySource]

propertySourceName: [propertySourceConfig], propertySourceClassName: [ResourcePropertySource]

propertySourceName: [defaultProperties], propertySourceClassName: [MapPropertySource]
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bootstrapProperties 是 获取远端(config-server)的 property sources

加载顺序也可参考 http://{host}:{port}/actuator/env

PropertySources 单元测试顺序:

@TestPropertySource#properties
@SpringBootTest#properties
@TestPropertySource#locations
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原文 

https://juejin.im/post/5bd7f9946fb9a05d32519dab

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