java并发编程:线程概念以及基本操作

进程(程序的一次执行)是系统进行资源分配和调度的基本单位。线程是轻量级进程,是程序执行的最小单位。一个进程可以包含多个线程。使用多线程是为了更好的利用cpu资源,提高执行效率和吞吐率。

线程的生命周期

java并发编程:线程概念以及基本操作

线程相关状态我们从jdk代码可以看到:

public enum State {
        /**
         * Thread state for a thread which has not yet started.
         */
        NEW,

        /**
         * Thread state for a runnable thread.  A thread in the runnable
         * state is executing in the Java virtual machine but it may
         * be waiting for other resources from the operating system
         * such as processor.
         */
        RUNNABLE,

        /**
         * Thread state for a thread blocked waiting for a monitor lock.
         * A thread in the blocked state is waiting for a monitor lock
         * to enter a synchronized block/method or
         * reenter a synchronized block/method after calling
         * {@link Object#wait() Object.wait}.
         */
        BLOCKED,

        /**
         * Thread state for a waiting thread.
         * A thread is in the waiting state due to calling one of the
         * following methods:
         * <ul>
         *   <li>{@link Object#wait() Object.wait} with no timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link #join() Thread.join} with no timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link LockSupport#park() LockSupport.park}</li>
         * </ul>
         *
         * <p>A thread in the waiting state is waiting for another thread to
         * perform a particular action.
         *
         * For example, a thread that has called <tt>Object.wait()</tt>
         * on an object is waiting for another thread to call
         * <tt>Object.notify()</tt> or <tt>Object.notifyAll()</tt> on
         * that object. A thread that has called <tt>Thread.join()</tt>
         * is waiting for a specified thread to terminate.
         */
        WAITING,

        /**
         * Thread state for a waiting thread with a specified waiting time.
         * A thread is in the timed waiting state due to calling one of
         * the following methods with a specified positive waiting time:
         * <ul>
         *   <li>{@link #sleep Thread.sleep}</li>
         *   <li>{@link Object#wait(long) Object.wait} with timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link #join(long) Thread.join} with timeout</li>
         *   <li>{@link LockSupport#parkNanos LockSupport.parkNanos}</li>
         *   <li>{@link LockSupport#parkUntil LockSupport.parkUntil}</li>
         * </ul>
         */
        TIMED_WAITING,

        /**
         * Thread state for a terminated thread.
         * The thread has completed execution.
         */
        TERMINATED;
    }
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new:刚创建线程状态

runnable:可执行状态

blocked:阻塞状态(等待获取请求的),例如遇到synchronized同步

waiting:无时间限制等待状态, 如

  • Object#wait() 无超时参数 (在等待notify()/notifyAll()方法)
  • Thread#join() 无超时参数 (在等待目标线程的终止)

timed_waiting:有时间限制等待状态,如

  • Thread#sleep()
  • Object#wait() 有超时参数
  • Thread#join() 有超时参数

terminated:结束状态(线程执行结束)

新建线程

1.继承线程Thread,重写run()方法,如下使用匿名内部类的实现方式

Thread t1 = new Thread(){
         @Override
         public void run() {
             System.out.printf("Hello World!");
         }
 };
 t1.start();
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2.通过Thread类的带有Runnable接口参数的方法创建

  • runnable接口如下所示:
@FunctionalInterface
public interface Runnable {
   /**
    * When an object implementing interface <code>Runnable</code> is used
    * to create a thread, starting the thread causes the object's
    * <code>run</code> method to be called in that separately executing
    * thread.
    * <p>
    * The general contract of the method <code>run</code> is that it may
    * take any action whatsoever.
    *
    * @see     java.lang.Thread#run()
    */
   public abstract void run();
}
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/**
     * Allocates a new {@code Thread} object. This constructor has the same
     * effect as {@linkplain #Thread(ThreadGroup,Runnable,String) Thread}
     * {@code (null, target, gname)}, where {@code gname} is a newly generated
     * name. Automatically generated names are of the form
     * {@code "Thread-"+}<i>n</i>, where <i>n</i> is an integer.
     *
     * @param  target
     *         the object whose {@code run} method is invoked when this thread
     *         is started. If {@code null}, this classes {@code run} method does
     *         nothing.
     */
    public Thread(Runnable target) {
        init(null, target, "Thread-" + nextThreadNum(), 0);
    }
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通过该构造函数,传入Runnable接口实例,调用start()方法,新线程即可执行,如下示例所示:

Thread t1 = new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                System.out.printf("Hello World!");
            }
});
t1.start();
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终止线程

一般线程执行完毕会自动结束,无序手动关闭。但有些意外的情况不会终止,thread提供了stop()方法进行强制终止,方法如下所示:

/**
     * Forces the thread to stop executing.
     * <p>
     * If there is a security manager installed, its <code>checkAccess</code>
     * method is called with <code>this</code>
     * as its argument. This may result in a
     * <code>SecurityException</code> being raised (in the current thread).
     * <p>
     * If this thread is different from the current thread (that is, the current
     * thread is trying to stop a thread other than itself), the
     * security manager's <code>checkPermission</code> method (with a
     * <code>RuntimePermission("stopThread")</code> argument) is called in
     * addition.
     * Again, this may result in throwing a
     * <code>SecurityException</code> (in the current thread).
     * <p>
     * The thread represented by this thread is forced to stop whatever
     * it is doing abnormally and to throw a newly created
     * <code>ThreadDeath</code> object as an exception.
     * <p>
     * It is permitted to stop a thread that has not yet been started.
     * If the thread is eventually started, it immediately terminates.
     * <p>
     * An application should not normally try to catch
     * <code>ThreadDeath</code> unless it must do some extraordinary
     * cleanup operation (note that the throwing of
     * <code>ThreadDeath</code> causes <code>finally</code> clauses of
     * <code>try</code> statements to be executed before the thread
     * officially dies).  If a <code>catch</code> clause catches a
     * <code>ThreadDeath</code> object, it is important to rethrow the
     * object so that the thread actually dies.
     * <p>
     * The top-level error handler that reacts to otherwise uncaught
     * exceptions does not print out a message or otherwise notify the
     * application if the uncaught exception is an instance of
     * <code>ThreadDeath</code>.
     *
     * @exception  SecurityException  if the current thread cannot
     *               modify this thread.
     * @see        #interrupt()
     * @see        #checkAccess()
     * @see        #run()
     * @see        #start()
     * @see        ThreadDeath
     * @see        ThreadGroup#uncaughtException(Thread,Throwable)
     * @see        SecurityManager#checkAccess(Thread)
     * @see        SecurityManager#checkPermission
     * @deprecated This method is inherently unsafe.  Stopping a thread with
     *       Thread.stop causes it to unlock all of the monitors that it
     *       has locked (as a natural consequence of the unchecked
     *       <code>ThreadDeath</code> exception propagating up the stack).  If
     *       any of the objects previously protected by these monitors were in
     *       an inconsistent state, the damaged objects become visible to
     *       other threads, potentially resulting in arbitrary behavior.  Many
     *       uses of <code>stop</code> should be replaced by code that simply
     *       modifies some variable to indicate that the target thread should
     *       stop running.  The target thread should check this variable
     *       regularly, and return from its run method in an orderly fashion
     *       if the variable indicates that it is to stop running.  If the
     *       target thread waits for long periods (on a condition variable,
     *       for example), the <code>interrupt</code> method should be used to
     *       interrupt the wait.
     *       For more information, see
     *       <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/concurrency/threadPrimitiveDeprecation.html">Why
     *       are Thread.stop, Thread.suspend and Thread.resume Deprecated?</a>.
     */
    @Deprecated
    public final void stop() {
        SecurityManager security = System.getSecurityManager();
        if (security != null) {
            checkAccess();
            if (this != Thread.currentThread()) {
                security.checkPermission(SecurityConstants.STOP_THREAD_PERMISSION);
            }
        }
        // A zero status value corresponds to "NEW", it can't change to
        // not-NEW because we hold the lock.
        if (threadStatus != 0) {
            resume(); // Wake up thread if it was suspended; no-op otherwise
        }

        // The VM can handle all thread states
        stop0(new ThreadDeath());
    }
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我们看到该方法被标记为废弃,后期jdk可能会移除该方法,因为stop()方法比较暴力,强行终止线程,会引起数据不一致的问题。

如果需要停止一个线程,我们可以自行决定线程何时退出。例如定义一个变量(决定是否退出),线程中自行在相应的位置判断该变量来进行退出操作。

jdk对于线程停止执行也有更好的支持,那就是下面要说的线程中断。

线程中断

线程中断不会使线程立即退出,而是给目标线程发送一个退出通知(设置中断标识位),然后由目标线程自行处理。

Thread类中与中断相关的方法如下:

/**
     * Interrupts this thread.
     *
     * <p> Unless the current thread is interrupting itself, which is
     * always permitted, the {@link #checkAccess() checkAccess} method
     * of this thread is invoked, which may cause a {@link
     * SecurityException} to be thrown.
     *
     * <p> If this thread is blocked in an invocation of the {@link
     * Object#wait() wait()}, {@link Object#wait(long) wait(long)}, or {@link
     * Object#wait(long, int) wait(long, int)} methods of the {@link Object}
     * class, or of the {@link #join()}, {@link #join(long)}, {@link
     * #join(long, int)}, {@link #sleep(long)}, or {@link #sleep(long, int)},
     * methods of this class, then its interrupt status will be cleared and it
     * will receive an {@link InterruptedException}.
     *
     * <p> If this thread is blocked in an I/O operation upon an {@link
     * java.nio.channels.InterruptibleChannel InterruptibleChannel}
     * then the channel will be closed, the thread's interrupt
     * status will be set, and the thread will receive a {@link
     * java.nio.channels.ClosedByInterruptException}.
     *
     * <p> If this thread is blocked in a {@link java.nio.channels.Selector}
     * then the thread's interrupt status will be set and it will return
     * immediately from the selection operation, possibly with a non-zero
     * value, just as if the selector's {@link
     * java.nio.channels.Selector#wakeup wakeup} method were invoked.
     *
     * <p> If none of the previous conditions hold then this thread's interrupt
     * status will be set. </p>
     *
     * <p> Interrupting a thread that is not alive need not have any effect.
     *
     * @throws  SecurityException
     *          if the current thread cannot modify this thread
     *
     * @revised 6.0
     * @spec JSR-51
     */
    public void interrupt() {
        if (this != Thread.currentThread())
            checkAccess();

        synchronized (blockerLock) {
            Interruptible b = blocker;
            if (b != null) {
                interrupt0();           // Just to set the interrupt flag
                b.interrupt(this);
                return;
            }
        }
        interrupt0();
    }

    /**
     * Tests whether the current thread has been interrupted.  The
     * <i>interrupted status</i> of the thread is cleared by this method.  In
     * other words, if this method were to be called twice in succession, the
     * second call would return false (unless the current thread were
     * interrupted again, after the first call had cleared its interrupted
     * status and before the second call had examined it).
     *
     * <p>A thread interruption ignored because a thread was not alive
     * at the time of the interrupt will be reflected by this method
     * returning false.
     *
     * @return  <code>true</code> if the current thread has been interrupted;
     *          <code>false</code> otherwise.
     * @see #isInterrupted()
     * @revised 6.0
     */
    public static boolean interrupted() {
        return currentThread().isInterrupted(true);
    }

    /**
     * Tests whether this thread has been interrupted.  The <i>interrupted
     * status</i> of the thread is unaffected by this method.
     *
     * <p>A thread interruption ignored because a thread was not alive
     * at the time of the interrupt will be reflected by this method
     * returning false.
     *
     * @return  <code>true</code> if this thread has been interrupted;
     *          <code>false</code> otherwise.
     * @see     #interrupted()
     * @revised 6.0
     */
    public boolean isInterrupted() {
        return isInterrupted(false);
    }
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上面三个方法调用如下:

public void Thread.interrupt(); //中断线程(设置中断标志位)
public boolean Thread.isInterrupted(); //判断是否被中断(检查中断标志位)
public static boolean Thread.interrupted(); //判断是否被中断,并清除当前中断状态(检查中断标志位)
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如下简单示例代码可以看到中断异常发生后重置中断标识,下次循环即可检查出中断退出:

public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        Thread t1 = new Thread(){
            @Override
            public void run() {
                while (true) {
                    if(Thread.currentThread().isInterrupted()){
                        System.out.println("Interrupted");
                        break;
                    }
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(2000);
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        System.out.println("Interrupted When Sleep");
                        //中断抛出异常会清除中断标识,在此设置中断状态,下次循环即可检查出中断在自定义适当地方退出
                        Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
                    }
                    Thread.yield();
                }
            }
        };
        t1.start();
        Thread.sleep(2000);
        t1.interrupt();
    }
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等待(wait)和通知(notify)

JDK提供的等待和通知的方法签名如下:

/**
     * Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
     * {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object.
     * In other words, this method behaves exactly as if it simply
     * performs the call {@code wait(0)}.
     * <p>
     * The current thread must own this object's monitor. The thread
     * releases ownership of this monitor and waits until another thread
     * notifies threads waiting on this object's monitor to wake up
     * either through a call to the {@code notify} method or the
     * {@code notifyAll} method. The thread then waits until it can
     * re-obtain ownership of the monitor and resumes execution.
     * <p>
     * As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are
     * possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:
     * <pre>
     *     synchronized (obj) {
     *         while (<condition does not hold>)
     *             obj.wait();
     *         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
     *     }
     * </pre>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
     * description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
     * a monitor.
     *
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of the object's monitor.
     * @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
     *             current thread before or while the current thread
     *             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
     *             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
     *             this exception is thrown.
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
     */
    public final void wait() throws InterruptedException {
        wait(0);
    }
    /**
     * Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on this object's
     * monitor. If any threads are waiting on this object, one of them
     * is chosen to be awakened. The choice is arbitrary and occurs at
     * the discretion of the implementation. A thread waits on an object's
     * monitor by calling one of the {@code wait} methods.
     * <p>
     * The awakened thread will not be able to proceed until the current
     * thread relinquishes the lock on this object. The awakened thread will
     * compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might be
     * actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example, the
     * awakened thread enjoys no reliable privilege or disadvantage in being
     * the next thread to lock this object.
     * <p>
     * This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
     * of this object's monitor. A thread becomes the owner of the
     * object's monitor in one of three ways:
     * <ul>
     * <li>By executing a synchronized instance method of that object.
     * <li>By executing the body of a {@code synchronized} statement
     *     that synchronizes on the object.
     * <li>For objects of type {@code Class,} by executing a
     *     synchronized static method of that class.
     * </ul>
     * <p>
     * Only one thread at a time can own an object's monitor.
     *
     * @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
     *               the owner of this object's monitor.
     * @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
     * @see        java.lang.Object#wait()
     */
    public final native void notify();
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这两个方法是 在Object类中 而不是Thread类中,任何对象都可调用。

一个线程调用object.wait()方法会进入object对象的等待队列(队列会有等待同一对象的多个线程)。当object.notify()时,会随机选择一个线程唤醒(还有一个notifyAll()方法会唤醒所有线程)。

下面看下示例:

public class SimpleWN {
    final static Object object = new Object();
    public static class T1 extends Thread{
        @Override
        public void run() {
            synchronized (object){
                System.out.println(System.currentTimeMillis()+":T1 start");
                try {
                    System.out.println(System.currentTimeMillis()+":T1 wait for object");
                    object.wait();
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                System.out.println(System.currentTimeMillis()+":T1 end");
            }
        }
    }

    public static class T2 extends Thread{
        @Override
        public void run() {
            synchronized (object){
                System.out.println(System.currentTimeMillis()+":T2 start! notify one thread");
                object.notify();
                System.out.println(System.currentTimeMillis()+":T2 end");
                try {
                    Thread.sleep(2000);
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {

                }
            }
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Thread t1 = new T1();
        Thread t2 = new T2();
        t1.start();
        t2.start();
    }


}
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上面示例输出为:

1594535225267:T1 start
1594535225268:T1 wait for object
1594535225268:T2 start! notify one thread
1594535225268:T2 end
1594535227268:T1 end
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T1 end 比T2 end间隔两秒,刚好是T2 Thread.sleep(2000),说明T2 notify()后T1并没有执行,而是T2释放锁以后T1再次重新获得object对象锁才会执行。

注意

  • Object.wait()方法和Thread.sleep()方法都可以让线程等待若干时间,wait()需要notify()唤醒并且会释放锁,而sleep()不会释放锁。

等待线程结束(join)和谦让(yield)

等待线程结束

当一个线程依赖其它线程执行完毕才能执行,JDK提供了join()操作:

//无限等待,阻塞当前线程,直到目标线程执行完毕
public final void join() throws InterruptedException;
//参数为最大等待时间,超时目标线程未执行完成,也会继续执行
public final synchronized void join(long millis) throws InterruptedException;
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我们来看下join方法的简单示例:

public class JoinMain {
    public volatile static int i = 0;
    public static class AddThread extends Thread{
        @Override
        public void run() {
            for (i = 0; i<10000000;i++);
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        AddThread at = new AddThread();
        at.start();
        at.join();
        System.out.println(i);
    }

}
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示例中主线程调用join()方法等待AddThread执行完毕,所以结果输出为10000000。如果不调用at.join(),则i的输出会是0或者很小的数字。 join方法的核心代码块如下:

if (millis == 0) {
    while (isAlive()) {
        wait(0);
    }
} else {
    while (isAlive()) {
        long delay = millis - now;
        if (delay <= 0) {
            break;
        }
        wait(delay);
        now = System.currentTimeMillis() - base;
    }
}
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可以看到join()方法中调用了wait方法,所以上面的示例中main线程wait在AddThread线程对象实例上进行等待,AddThread线程执行完成退出前会调用notifyAll()唤醒main线程继续运行(关于在什么地方进行调用notifyAll进行唤醒调用线程(例如示例中main线程)?可以参考: stackoverflow.com/questions/9… )。

所以需要避免在程序中在Thread对象实例上进行wait()或者notify()操作,可能会影响join()方法的正常运行。

线程谦让

线程谦让Thread.yield()定义如下:

/**
     * A hint to the scheduler that the current thread is willing to yield
     * its current use of a processor. The scheduler is free to ignore this
     * hint.
     *
     * <p> Yield is a heuristic attempt to improve relative progression
     * between threads that would otherwise over-utilise a CPU. Its use
     * should be combined with detailed profiling and benchmarking to
     * ensure that it actually has the desired effect.
     *
     * <p> It is rarely appropriate to use this method. It may be useful
     * for debugging or testing purposes, where it may help to reproduce
     * bugs due to race conditions. It may also be useful when designing
     * concurrency control constructs such as the ones in the
     * {@link java.util.concurrent.locks} package.
     */
    public static native void yield();
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Thread.yield()使当前线程让出cpu,但并不代表当前线程不执行了,还会竞争cpu资源(竞争到cpu资源会继续执行)。

原文 

https://juejin.im/post/5eef0f826fb9a058805988bf

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